BIOLOGY PRACTICAL O’LEVEL CLASSIFICATION I KINGDOM FUNGI
BIOLOGY PRACTICAL O’ LEVEL CLASSIFICATION
-Classification: is the grouping of organisms based on their similarities and differences.
RANKS OF CLASSIFICATION
-There are seven (7) ranks of classification which are:
1. Kingdom……..the highest rank
2. Phylum or division
7. Species……….the lowest rank.
TYPES OF CLASSIFICATION
-There are two types of classification which are:
1. Natural classification: is the grouping of organisms based on many features in common.
2. Artificial classification: is the grouping of organisms based on few features especial observed features.
*TAXONOMY: is the study which deals with the identification, naming and classification of organisms.
*NOMENCLATURE: is the system of giving scientific names to the organisms.
*BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE: is scientific way of naming organisms where by each organism has one scientific name with two parts, the generic name and the specific name.
In biology, organisms are classified into five major groups called kingdoms.
These groups are:
1. Kingdom monera.eg bacteria
2. Kingdom protoctista.eg amoeba
3. Kingdom fungi.eg mushroom
4. Kingdom plantae.eg maize
5. Kingdom animalia.eg human being
–According to NECTA, different questions of biology practical in classification are based on the last three kingdom: Kingdom fungi, Kingdom plantae, and Kingdom animalia.
-Representative organisms in this kingdom are: mushroom, mucor and yeasts.
General characteristics of kingdom fungi
– They do not have chlorophyll.
– They are eukaryotes.
– They store food as glycogen.
– They are non mobile.
– Are multicellular organisms.
Distinctive characteristics of kingdom fungi
– Their cell wall is made up of chitin.
– They undergo external digestion.
– Their body is made up of mycelium.
– Have no true stem, leaves, or roots.
Phyla of kingdom fungi
1. Phylum Zygomycota.eg rhizopus/ mucor
2. Phylum Basidiomycota.eg mushroom
3. Phylum Ascomycota.eg yeast
* According to this level, only the first two phylum appear to the practical: Zygomycota and Basidiomycota.
1. Phylum Zygomycota: eg rhizopus/ mucor
General features of zgomycota ( rhizopus / mucor).
– They have aseotate hyphae (non- septate).
– They are saprotrophs.
– They reproduce very fast.
– Undergo extracellular digestion.
Economic importance of zygomycota (rhizopus/ mucor).
– They are important in the decomposition of dead organisms.
– They are used in genetic engineering and research.
– They are used in manufacturing of cheese.
– They cause food spoilage.
– They cause diseases both in plants and animals.
Observable features of zygomycota ( rhizopus and mucor).
– They have roots like structure called rhizoids.
– They have spores
– The have hyphae.
Habitat of zygomycota ( rhizopus and mucor)
– They living on dead organic matter.
Mode of reproduction of zygomycota (rhizopus and mucor)
– They reproduce asexually through spores or sexually through formation of zygosporia.
*Common name of rhizopus/ mucor is black mold ( bread mold).
*Scientific name of rhizopus/ mucor is Rhizopus stolonifer.
ADAPTATIONS OF RHIZOPUS and MUCOR
– Spores are light for easy dispersal by wind.
– They produce a large quantity of spores for the survival of species.
– They reproduce spores sexually and asexually.
– They have rhizoids which assist anchored.
* Classification of rhizopus / mucor to their class level:
– Kingdom; fungi
– Phylum; zygomycota
– Class; mucoromycotina
STRUCTURE OF RHIZOPUS/MUCOR
2. Phylum Basidiomycota. eg mushroom.
General characteristics of basidiomycota (mushroom).
– They have septate hyphae.
– They secrete enzymes for external digestion.
– They are saprophytic feeders.
– They grow on rotting wood or soil.
Economic importance of bssidiomycota (mushroom).
– They are source of food to man and other species.
– They can prevent the accumulation of dead matters by decomposing them.
– Some of them are poisonous. eg amanita species
– They are used in genetic engineering and research
Observable features of basidiomycota (mushroom).
– They have gills.
– They have a ring.
– Have cap( pilleus).
– Have stalk.
Habitat of basidiomycota (mushroom).
– They living on dead and decaying organic matter.
Mode of reproduction of basidiomycota (mushroom)
– They reproduce both sexually and asexually by spores formation.
* Common name is Mushroom.
*Scientific name of mushroom is Agaricus compestris.
ADAPTATIONS OF MUSHROOM
– Have the ability of secreting enzymes for extracellular digestion.
– Reproduce sexually and asexually to ensure survival.
– Have a cap (pilleus) for protection of basidiospores.
– Some species are poison preventing them from being eaten by predator.
* Classification of mushroom to class level.
– Kingdom; fungi.
– Phylum; basidiomycota.
– Class; agaricomycete
STRUCTURE OF MUSHROOM