.eg human being

General characteristics of kingdom animalia

– They are multicellular and eukaryotes.

– They exhibit heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

– They have sensory nervous system.

– They have mainly sexual reproduction.

– They store food in the form of glycogen.

Distinctive features of kingdom animalia

– They have limited growth

– They can locomote

– They have nervous system.

– They show heterotrophic mode of nutrition

– They have skeleton tissues


A. Phylum platyhelminthesis.eg worms

B. Phylum nematoda.eg ascaris

C. Phylum annelida.eg earthworm

D. Phylum arthropoda.eg insects

E. Phylum chordata.eg fish

*According to this level, we shall deal with the last three phylum that can appear at an exams due to their possibility of availability.

A. PHYLUM ANNELIDA.eg earthworms

General characteristics of annelida (earthworm)

– They have a closed circulatory system.

– The heart is dorsal, has ventrial nervous system.

– They reproduce sexually, fertilization is external.

– They are hermophrodite (two sexes in one organism)

– Have both circular and longitudinal muscles for movement.

Distinctive features of annelida (earthworm)

– Body may have over 100 metameres

– They have hydrostatic skeleton

– The segments are divided by a cross wall called septum

– Excretion is mainly by nephridia

Economic imporatance of annelida (earthworm)

– Their burrows provide natural drainage channels.

– The burrows improve soil aeration

– They increase the depth of topsoil

– The constant passage through the soil reduce the particle to a fine state

– Used in biological study.

– Used as food for some organisms

Adaptation of earthworm to mode of life

– Lives mostly in barrows to avoid dehydration

– They posses chaeta for locomotion

– They are omnivorous mode of feeding, this ensure availability of food throughout so increase chance of survival.

– They have hydrostatic skeleton for support and locomotion

– Similar colour with environment produces comuflage.

Habitat of earthworm

– They lives in moist soil.

Mode of nutrition of earthworm

– They are heterotrophs (omnivorous)

Mode of reproduction of earthworm

– They reproduce sexually by producing egg and sperm at the clitellum.Fertilization is external

* Common name is​​ Earthworm.

* Scientific name of earthworm is​​

Classification of earthworm to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; annelida

– Class; oligochaeta



​​ B. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA.eg insects

General ​​ characteristics of phylum arthropoda

– Thier have exoskeleton

– They have segmented body

– The body consist of head, thorax and abdomen

– Have antennae

– Have simple or compound eyes

Advantages of exoskeleton

– Provide protection from mechanical or chemical injury.

– Prevent the entry of pathogens.

– It maintains the shape and support the body

– It help in locomotion

Did advantages of exoskeleton

– It is hard and not flexible​​

– It limit growth and size due to its hardness.

– It is less sensitive

– It is impermeable to gase.i.e doesn’t allow free gaseous exchange

Classes of phylum arthropoda

a. Class diplopoda.eg millipede

b. Class chilopoda.eg centipede

c. Class arachnida.eg spider

d. Class crustaceans.eg crab

e. Class insecta.eg bee

a. Class diplopoda.eg millipede

General characteristics of diplopoda( millipede)

– They have segmented body

– They have two pairs of legs in each segment​​

– Roll into ball when threatened​​

– Excretion is through malpigian tubules

– The sexes are separate male and female

Adaptation of millipede

– They posses legs for locomotion

– Presence of exoskeleton which protect the internal organs from dessication.

– They secreate a toxic fluid for protection from predators.

– They lives in soil and they are brown blackish in colour gives them camouflage.

– Have one pairvof antenna for sensation

Observable features of millipede

– Have two pairs of legs in each segment

– Have one pair of antennae

– Body divided in many segment

– Have simple eyes

Habitat of millipede

– Thy lives in shady moist soils rich in organic matter.

* Common name is​​ millipede.

* Scientific name of millipede is​​ Lukus terestris.

Classification of millipede to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; arthropods

– Class; diplopoda



b. Class chilopoda.eg centipede

General characteristics of chilopoda (centipede)

– Have flattered body

– Have one pair of legs in each segment

– Have pair of poisonous claws to the appendages

– Have a pair of antennae in head region

– Have a pair of mandibles on the mouth part

Observable features of centipede

– Have one pair of legs in each segment

– Have simple eyes

– Have poisonous claws

– Have a pair of antennae

Adaptation of centipede

– Have pair of antennae for sensation

– Have many legs for locomotion

– Have pair of poisonous claws for locomotion

Habitat of centipede

– They lives in sandy soil beneath stone, dry grass areas and barks of trees.

* Common name is​​ Centipede.

* Scientific name of centipede is​​ Lithobius froficatus.

Classification of centipede to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; arthropods

– Class; chilopoda



c. Class arachnida.eg spider, scorpion, ticks ​​ 

General characteristics of arachnida(spider,scorpion, tucks)

– They have four pairs of legs

– The body is divided in two regions i.e the cephalothorax and abdomen

– Gesous exchange is by book lungs or trachea system

– Some members have poisonous claws

– Have a simple eyes

Observable features of spider, scorpion and ticks ​​ ​​ ​​​​ 

– Have four pair of legs

– Have simple eyse

– Body divided into two regions

– Have poisonous sting

Adaptations of spider, scorpion, and ticks ​​​​ 

– Have legs for locomotion

– Have simple eyse for sight

– Have poisonous sting for protection

Habitat of spider, scorpion, and ticks

– They are terrestrial organisms lives in rocks, roof of the walls and in the soil

 ​​​​ Classification of spider, scorpion, and ticks to class level ​​

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; arthropods

– Class; arachnida






d. Class crustaceans.eg crab

General characteristics of crustaceans( crab)

– Have exoskeleton

– Respiratory is by gills

– Have a pair of compound eyes

– Have four pairs of legs

– The body is divided into two main parts.i.e cephalothorax and abdomen

– sexes separate​​

Observable features of crustaceans (crab)

– Have four pairs of legs

– Have compound eyes

– Have exoskeleton

– The body is divided into two parts

Adaptations of crab

– Have legs for locomotion

– Have compound eyes for maximum sight

– Have exoskeleton for internal protection

Habitat of crab

– They lives in water( aquatic habitat)

* Common name is​​ Crab.

* Scientific name of crab is​​ Crcinus maenas.

Classification of crab to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; arthropods

– Class; crustaceans


e. Class insects.eg housefly.mosquito.cockroach

General characteristics of insecta( housefly, bee, mosquito, and cockroach)

– Body is divided into three main parts.i.e head, thorax, and abdomen

– Have one pair of antennae

– Gesous exchange by trachea

– Have a compound eyes

– Have three pairs of jointed legs

– Some have developed wings

Observable features of housefly, bee, mosquito, cockroach, and grasshopper

– Have one pair of antennae

– Have jointed legs

– Have pair of wings

– Have compound eyes

– Body divided into three parts​​

Adaptations of bee, housefly, cockroach, grasshopper, and mosquito

– Have antennae for sensation

– Have legs for locomotion

– Have wings for flying


​​ Bee.  ​​ ​​



Have compound eys for maximum sighting

– Have abdomen for reproduction and respiration

Habitat of bee, housefly, mosquito, cockroach, grasshopper

– They lives in freshly water and terrestrial habitats

Classification of bee, housefly, cockroach, mosquito, and grasshopper to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; arthropods

– Class; insecta





Economic importance of bee, housefly, mosquito, cockroach, butterfly and grasshopper

– Acts as agent of pollination.eg bee

– Causative agent of diseases.eg mosquito

– Used in biological study

– Source of food.eg grasshopper

– Used for decoration.eg butterfly

C. PHYLUM CHORDATA.eg fish,​​ 

General characteristics of chordata​​

– Posses notochord​​

– Presence of nerve cord

– Presence of visceral cleft

– Have ventral heart

Classes of chordata

a. Class chondrichthyes.eg shark

b. Class osteichthyes.eg tilapia

c. Class amphibia.eg frog

d. Class reptilia.eg snake

e. Class aves.eg bird

f. Class mammali.eg bat

a. Class osteichthyes.eg tilapia

General characteristics of osteichthyes( tilapia)

– They have terminal mouth.

– Have a pair of eyes and nostrils

– Scales are cycloid pointing backwards and overlapping

– Posses a homocoecal tail fin at the posterial part

– They have two chambered heart

– They have terminal mouth with homocoecal (equal) tail

Adaptations of tilapia

– Have tail for swimming

– Have gills for gesous exchange

– Have pair of eyes and nostrils for sensitivity

– Cycloid scales pointed backward to support movement during swimming

– Posses swim bladder for buoyancy maintainance

Observable features of tilapia

– Have eyes, and terminal mouth

– Have tail

– Have gills​​

– Have cycloid scales

– Have fins

Habitat of tilapia

– They are living in every type of water (aquatic organism)

Classification of tilapia to its class level

– Kingdom; animalia

-Phylum; chordata

-Class; osteichthyes

 ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ STRUCTURE OF TILAPIA FISH

b. Class amphibia.eg frog

General characteristics of amphibia (frog and toad)

– The skin is moist and slippery to touch.

– The hind limbs are long and stronger​​

– The legs are webbed with five digit toes

– The fore limbs are short

– They appear mottled green with dark brown colour.

Adaptations of frog and tod

– With jumping and hopping, they are very fast in locomotion

– The hind limbs are long, muscular and strong for jumping and hopping

– Webbed feet support in swimming​​

– Have galnds that secrete a milky substance so as to keep away predators

– Have ability to hebernate and search for food in night time.

Habitat of frog

– They are found normally in damp situations onbgrass near water, damp ditches and swimming in ponds or streams.

* Common name is​​ frog.

* Scientific name of frog is​​ Rana temporaria.

Classification of frog to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; chordata

– Class; amphibia



c. Class reptilia.eg snake, chameleo, totoe, crocodile.

General characteristics of reptilia(lizard, snake, crocodile,)

– They have dry scaly skin

– Internal fertilization and the eggs are amniotic

– Respiration by lungs only

– Have four chambered heart except the crocodile is completely four chambered heart

– They secrete nitrogenous wastes inform of uric acid

Adaptations of reptilia (snake, crocodile, lizard, camelion)

– Are webbed between toes, aids swimming in water (crocodile)

– Streamed lined body enables easy penetration in water

– Have toes with claws to dig and climb

– Nostrils present for smell

– Produce large number of eggs and protected stiky slimy jelly

Habitat of reptilian

– Most lives in terrestrial ( lizard, snake, tortoes, chameleon), and some lives in aquatic habitat (crocodile, snake, tortoes).

Classification of snake, crocodile, chameleon, tortoes, lizard

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; chordata

– Class; reptilia


Sketch, Label And Classify Wall Lizard.

d. Class aves.eg bird

General characteristics of aves (bird)

– The fore limbs are modified into wings

– The mouth is modified into a horny beaks

– They have scaly legs and claws on the digits

– They have four chambered heart

– Body coveted with feathers​​

Adaptations of aves( birds)

– Body is coverd with feathers for insulation and flight

– The fore limbs are modified into wings for flight

– The body is stream lined to reduce air resistance

– They have hollow bones to keep weight to its minimum for efficient flight

– Internal fertilization increase chance of survival

Observable features of pigeon (bird)

– Have wings

– Have two hind limbs

– Have feathers​​

– Have beak mouth

– Have claws in their fingers

Habitat of pigeon( bird)

They lives in almost every part of the world. They inhabit forests such as rainforests, temperate deciduous forests, swamp forests and arboreal forests.

Classification of pigeon( birds) to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; chordata

– Class; aves



e. Class mammalia.eg rat, bat, human being etc.

General characteristics of mammalian( rat, bat, human being)

– Have mammary glands

– Body coverd by hairs

– Have heterodont teeth

– Have diaphragm

– Have four chambered heart

– Have sweat glands​​

Adaptations of mammalian(rat, bat, human being,etc.)

– Heterodont dentition a variety of teeth for variety of purpose

– Hairs and glands helps in maintaining body temperature

– Have internal fertilization hence increase chance of survival

– Have well developed blood circulatory system

– Have nervous and hormonal coordination

Habitat of mammalian (bat, tat….)

– Most of them lives in terrestrial habitat,,and some lives in aquatic habitat

Mode of nutrition of mammalian

-​​ They are heterotrophs due to the lack of chloroplasts

Mode of reproduction of mammalian​​ 

They reproduce sexually, they have internal fertilization

Classification of rat, bat NAD human being to class level

– Kingdom; animalia

– Phylum; chordata

– Class; mammalian


​​ RAT.  ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ 

Economic importance of mammalian( rat, bat….)

– They are direct source of food. eg cow, rat…

– They are used in biological studies.eg rat

– They are used as guards and detection of drugs.eg dog

– They are used as biological control of pests.eg cat

– They are used for transportation purpose.eg horse


NB:​​ assume you are provided with specimen Z that is a​​ BEE.

* What is the common name of specimen Z?.

* What is scientific name of specimen Z?.

* Mention four observable features of specimen Z.

* In which kingdom specimen Z is placed?.

* Outline three features that makes specimen Z to fit in kingdom you mentioned above.

* In which class specimen Z is placed?.

* Classify specimen Z into its class level.

* State the habitat of specimen Z.

* What is the mode of reproduction of specimen Z?.

* Outline four adaptations of specimen Z to its mode of life.

* Listdown five economic importance of specimen Z.

* Outline three characteristics of specimen Z.

* Draw the structure of specimen Z and label it.


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