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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

These are sentences that express a condition that must be fulfilled for something else to take place.

There are three types of conditional sentences

The first type expresses the conditions that are likely to be fulfilled.

The second type is used when the condition is less probable/less likely and;

The third expresses the past possibilities or unlikely conditions.

CONDITIONAL TYPE 1

If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

I will send her an invitation, if I find her address.

Note that in conditional sentence type 1 (likely or probable/possible conditions) you use present simple in the “If clause” and will/shall in the main clause.

This conditional is also called “real” conditional because it is used for real situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met / fulfilled.

i.e. If/unless + simple present + future (will/shall)

Not also that you can have the “main clause” or the “If clause” at the beginning of the sentence.

E.g. If Mbwana Samata plays today, we shall win the match.

We shall win the match, If Mbwana Samata plays today.

“The use of If”

o   I will improve my English, if I do more exercises.

o   If she goes to the hospital early, she will not (won’t) die

o   If you go to Ngorongoro you will see a lot of animals.

o   If John comes, we will hold a party.

o   If you stay quite in the class the teacher will not punish you.

o   If I live near the river I will be a fisherman.

o   If you work hard, I will give you a gift.

o   If Mbwana Samata plays today, we shall win the match.

o   If you send this letter now, she will receive it tomorrow.

o   John will marry you, if you give him a chance.

“The use of unless”

Unless” means the same as “if not”. It is used in conditional sentences of all types.

Examples

Unless you study hard, you won’t pass the exam.

Unless she goes to the hospital early, she will die

Unless you stay quiet, the teacher will punish you.

Unless I live near the river I won’t be a fisherman.

Exercise.

1.  Put the following sentences in their correct form to make conditional sentences type 1.

a.    If it (rain), we (not go) to play.

b.    If Joseph (get) more money, he (buy) a new car.

c.   If you don’t stop smoking, you (get) lung cancer.

d.    You will pass, if you (study) hard.

e.    She will pass, if she (study) hard.

2.    Change the sentences above and put ‘unless” in the place of “if” to make conditional sentences type 1.

CONDITIONAL TYPE 2

Type 2 conditionals usually suggest that a situation is unlikely, impossible, imaginary or hypothetical. It is also called unreal conditional because it is used for unreal or improbable situations.

In such sentences we use simple past tense in the “if” clause and would/should/could/might or conditional tense in the main clause.

i.e. if/unless + simple past tense + would

E.g. If I were God, I would kill all prostitutes.

If you studied for the test, you would pass it.

I would call you, if I had your number.

She would understand, if you spoke English

If you spoke English, she would understand.

If you asked me, I would help you.

If you knew English, you would go to London.

If Joseph got more money he would buy a new car.

If we used fertilizer we would get good harvest.

If I lived near the river I would be a fisherman.

If you closed the doo the thief would not steal.

Exercise

1. Put the following sentences in their correct form to make conditional sentences type 2.

i.      I will improve my English, if I do more exercises.

ii.      If she goes to the hospital early, she will not(won’t) die

iii.      If you go to Ngorongoro you will see a lot of animals.

iv.      If john comes, we will hold a party.

v.      If you stay quite in the class the teacher will not punish you.

vi.      You will pass, if you study hard.

vii.      She will pass, if she studies hard.

2. Use the sentences above and put ‘unless” in the place of “if” to make conditional sentences type 2.

CONDITIONAL TYPE 3

Type three conditionals are used to talk about unreal situations in the past or the possible consequences of something that did not happen in the past.

It is sometimes called purely hypothetical because it expresses situations that can never be fulfilled.

In this conditional we use past perfect in the ‘if’ clause (If + had) and conditional perfect (would have) in the main clause.

i.e. if + had (past perfect) + conditional perfect (would have)

I would have lost my luggage if Daddy had not been there.

If Daddy had not been there, I would have lost my luggage.

I would have given up, if you had not encouraged me.

If you had asked me, I would have helped you.

If you had studied for the test, you would have passed it.

I would have called you, if I had had your number.

She would have understood, if you had spoken English

If you had spoken English, she would have understood.

If you had known English, you would have gone to London.

If Joseph had got more money he would have bought a new car.

If we had used fertilizer we would have got good harvest.

If I had lived near the river I would have been a fisherman.

If you had closed the door the thief would not have stolen.

Exercise

1. Put the following sentences in their correct form to make conditional sentences type 3.

a. If we pray, God will help us

b.If you eat balanced diet you will become healthy.

c. You would improve your English If you do more exercises.

d. She will marry John if he pays the bride price.

e.       If Samata played today samba would win the match.

f.        If you write the notes you will revise at night.

2. Use the sentences above and put ‘unless” in the place of “if” to make conditional sentences type 3.

3. Read the following sentences and answer as instructed.

1.      If you study hard you will pass.

Begin: Unless ———————————————–

2.      If you use fertilizer you will get good harvest.

(Put in conditional type 2)

3.      We would win the match if Samata played today.

(Put in conditional type 1)

4.      If you know English you will go to America.

(Put in conditional type 2)

5.      I would call you if I had your number.

Begin; If ……………….……..………………..………..

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