Home ADVANCED LEVEL ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1 Debate, Dialogue, Discussion And Interviews

Debate, Dialogue, Discussion And Interviews

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Debate, Dialogue, Discussion And Interviews

Debate, Dialogue, Discussion And Interviews

DEBATE

This is a formal discussion of an issue at a public meeting or in a parliament. In a debate two or more speakers express opposing views and then there is often a vote on the issue. People debate when they disagree on a topic and want to explain their reasons why.

In a formal debate, two teams of people disagree, but they follow a set of rules. The rules ensure that each team has a fair chance to express its views.

Before the debate, the teams are given the topic statement usually called the motion. One team will argue for (support) it and the other team will argue against (oppose) it. Team members on both sides organise their ideas and prepare a speech.

The school debate must have the following people;

1. The chairperson/speaker. The chairperson is in charge of controlling all matters, including tells people when they can speak, etc.

2. Motion mover: this one defines the motion to make it debatable but without supporting or opposing it.

3. Judges: these help to decide who has won a competition by assessing the strength of the points given by both sides.

4. Secretaries: these are responsible for recoding the points spoken by their members.

5. Time keeper. This has a duty to control the time allotted for each member to speak.

6. Principal/main speakers. These are representatives from each team who are given equal chances to argue either for or against the motion before opening it to the members of the floor (audience).

7. Audience. These are listeners in a debate who are from either of the two sides participating in a debate.

They may also be given chances to contribute to the topic under discussion by supporting their team or asking questions and clarifications of some points from the opposite team. There may be neutral speakers who present their views regardless of the side.

They may even oppose a point spoken by a member of their side or add a point to their opponents if they find it important but the opposite side has not been able to raise it.

In a debate good speaking and listening skills are very important. Some important appropriate phrases used in the debate include:

Additional point…..

Interruption point….

Point of correction….

Point of information….

Point of opposition…

The previous speaker has raised an interesting point however I would like to differ with him…

I concur with the previous speaker, additionally…

For the debate to be interesting then;

1. Select a good motion. A good motion is one that is controversial enough to evoke strong arguments from both sides. Also it should not be one-sided. Some topics are biased as they give a chance for one side to win and another to lose.

2. Read widely on the subject. It is better to do a thorough research prior to participating in a debate so as to argue from an informed position and support your ideas with statistics, or authority.

3.  Use polite and appropriate language. Even when you disagree with the opposite speaker’s claims you don’t have to fight. You need to remain calm and use a polite language.

4. All matters should be addressed to the chairperson. No personal attack or confrontation is allowed. Even questions are directed to the chairperson then he/she allows the person responsible to respond

5. Each speaker is allotted the same amount of time. The chairperson gives both sides equal chances to present their arguments by calling a speaker from either side in an alternating manner.

TASK

Choose any motion(s) among the given and hold a class debate

1.      Corporal punishments should be abolished in Secondary schools

2.      The government should provide free education from Primary to University level

3.      The coming of Europeans was the source of Development to Africans.

4.      Girls are better than boys

5.      Air transport is better than water transport

6.      Arts subjects are more important than business subjects

7.      Female genital mutilation should be promoted.

8.      Boarding schools are better than day schools.

9.      African culture is better than European culture

10.  The mass media are responsible for moral decay in the society.

DIALOGUES

A formal discussion between two groups or countries, especially when they are trying to solve a problem, end a disagreement, etc

A dialogue is conversations between two or more people in a book, play, or film/movie. In dialogues the speaker is identified and the exact words are spoken. The name of the speaker is written on the left, followed by a colon (:) before the actual words spoken are written.

Apart from what is spoken, stage directions and other information like actions, reactions or organization of the setting are included in the dialogue. Such information is put in brackets.

Here is the dialogue between a receptionist and a customer. Complete it by filling in the blank spaces.

Receptionist: Can I help you sir?

Guest:              ……………………………………………………………

Receptionist: I am sorry sir. All our rooms are booked unless you are ready to share with our secretary.

Guest:             …………………………………………………………….

Receptionist: Okay: Let me ask HIM.

Guest:             ………………………………… Let me try somewhere else!

Receptionist: …………….………………………………………………

The following are jumbled sentences of a dialogue between a Booking Office clerk and a customer. Arrange the sentences to complete the dialogue.

Certainly, your name, please?

Thanks very much.

Precision Airways, good afternoon. How may I help you?

My name is Kaja Mwanga.

There are three flights to Nairobi tomorrow; at six, eight and eleven.

My number is 0912-234567

Hello, I would like to book a place to Nairobi for tomorrow.

Your telephone number, please?

Could you put me on the eight o’clock flight please?

Your reservation is confirmed, good day, madam.

Clerk: …………………………………………………………………

Customer:      ……………………………………………………

Clerk:…………………………………………………………………

Customer:      ……………………………………………………

Clerk:…………………………………………………………………

Customer:      ………………………………………………………

Clerk:……………………………………………………………………

Customer:      ………………………………………………………

INTERVIEWS

The word interview can be understood as:

i. A formal meeting at which somebody is asked questions to see if they are suitable for a particular job, or for a course of study at a college, university, etc

ii. It is  to ask somebody questions about their life, opinions, etc, especially on the radio or television or for a newspaper or magazine

iii. To ask somebody questions at a private meeting.

The most common type of interview and that most people feel apprehensive about is the job interview. The best thing with job interviews however is that both the interviewers and the interviewee are in stress. The interviewers are in stress because they might land on the wrong person. So for the rest of this topic we are going to discuss some tips and tricks to help you go through the interview stage of your job application.

Tips and tricks on how to prepare for the interview.

i. Read widely on the subject you are going to be interviewed for.

ii. Prepare all the necessary documents needed to be carried with you for the interview.

iii. Dress smartly, decently and formally. Do not under-dress (Be shabby) or overdress (be too much attractive). Your first impression matters a lot and may affect the decision.

iv. Think positively. Be optimistic and not pessimistic.

v. Be informed of the company’s mission and vision.

vi. Practice interview. Ask someone who has been in the interview what happened in his/her interview. If you get someone from the same company, so much the better.

vii. Get in the interview earlier.

viii. When entering the interview room remain standing until offered a seat.

DOS AND DON’TS DURING THE INTERVIEW

The dos

1. When asked a question give a clear, precise and concise answer.

2. Listen and answer the questions you are asked and ask later.

3. Focus on your contribution to the organisation.

4. Make sure that you are heard clearly.

5. Relax and enjoy the experience because you are prepared.

6. Relate to the interviewers, call them by names, look on their faces and smile to them.

7. Thank the interviewers at the end of the interview and carry your documents with you.

Don’ts

1. Whatever you do, don’t talk about money until the employer puts the job offer on the table.

2. Don’t chew things in the interview.

3. Don’t show that you know too much.

4. Don’t sit down until allowed to do so.

5. Don’t cross your legs one on the other but sit squarely.

EXERCISE

Imagine that you have been called for a job interview at Samwiterson Company dealing with book publishing. Give your responses to the questions below.
Manager: Tell us about yourself.

You:        ______________________________________________

Manager: Have ever done this kind of work before?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: Just what kind of position are you looking for?

You:     _______________________________________________

Manager: Why did you leave your last job?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: How did you get along with your former boss and colleagues?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: Doesn’t this work (job) represent a step down for you?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: There are many publishing firms in this city why did you decide to work with us?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: Tell me what is your greatest weakness?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: How much would you like to be paid?

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: Thank you for coming, you’ll be informed through your number by our secretary whether you managed to get through.

You:       ______________________________________________

Manager: You are welcome!

DISCUSSIONS

Since different people or groups of people hold different views and opinions on different matters, it is mandatory to hold discussions to arrive at a common understanding. Discussions allow each member an equal opportunity to express his/her views.

Although each one would like to have his/her views taken, it is impossible to consider each view raised during the discussion. So when presenting your views be prepared for one of the following situations and don’t feel ignored.

Lose – win situation, (you need to compromise your stand and agree with another person’s view)

Win – lose situation, (the other person may compromise his stand and agree with yours)

Lose – lose situation (both of you have to compromise your stands to reach a common ground)

Win – win situation (both of your ideas are taken into considerations)

For effective discussion to take place

All the members have to read widely on the subject under discussion.

There should be a chairperson to moderate the discussion and a secretary to record the points.

As pointed above the discussion is not intended to find who is right but what is right. Since we are not looking for the winner and the loser don’t defend you position even when the points presented by other members are convincing. Be read to win or lose without being hurt.

Debate, Dialogue, Discussion And Interviews

EXERCISE

Choose one topic here and hold a discussion on it.
1)      How can youths use social networks fruitfully?

2)      Can we avoid conflicts in the society?

3)      Should secondary school students be allowed to use electronic devices?

4)      What are the disadvantages of cheating in exams?

5)      Importance of participating in sports and games.

6)      Importance of controlling the tongue.

7)      How can youths avoid bad peer groups and pressure?

8)      Is democracy important in every decision?

9)      There is no need for Tanzania to join East Africa federation

10)  Unplanned pregnancies should be aborted.

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