Driving forces of globalization
THE CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization is defined as the increasing process of interdependence and interconnectedness between different political, social and economic components of the world. It is the way in which the world is seen as the global village.
Globalization has become a worldwide system because it integrates people across their the national borders, making the world operates as a village and therefore making free movement of people, goods, capital and information.
The process of globalization is largely facilitated by rapid advancement in technology growth trade and competition.
Historical background of globalization
The world’s interconnectedness and interdependence between its different social, political and economic components started as far back as during the European mercantile period (15000- 1750) and has continued up today.
During the mercantile period, European merchants crossed their borders and conducted trade in other parts of the world like Africa, Asia and Latin America.
The event of slave trade and the exportation of Africans from their continent to other continents, notably the America, linked with Africa more and more with outside World. All these activities were demonstrations of globalization at that time.
Driving forces of globalization
The process of globalization is a result of various factors. Such factors include the following
1. Advancement in science and Technology
The development of science and technology has contributed greatly to the development of global interconnectedness, interactions and integration of World societies into the global village.
The development of science and technology has enabled (technologist) to design and make things like machines which simplify human’s activities for example the development of information and communication technology. (ICT) has contributed much on the globalization process.
The development of science and technology which marked the initial stage of integration between Europe, American and other external World like Africa had eventually changed the world in to a global village.
2. Advancement in education
Education has contributed greatly to the development of science and technology and integration of people from distant places. Education process has marked the point of no return towards the integration of different people from different nations and culture in the world.
From the 20th century, revolutionized education marked intensive integration of people in universities, colleges and international conferences. Through interactions and integration, most people adopted culture from other people and thus beginning of cultural liberalization.
3. Social and political liberalization
This process has its root from the liberal democratic principle. Liberal believe that freedom of an individual is the main principle of life that people are supposed to have. The freedom of individual principle has thus fostered the development of globalization in social and political aspects
Social liberalization is widely spreading due to the advancement of information and communication technologies like TV, e-mail, cellular phones and internet technology.
Politically, the integration of politics in the global scale has fostered the development of globalization. Traditionally polities have been undertaken within national political systems but due to globalization the national governments have ultimately responsible for maintaining the security and economic welfare of their citizens as well as protection of human right.
Aspects of globalization
Globalization as an economic, political and social phenomena is associated with the following major aspects
1. Information technology an communication
Globalization is characterized by advancement of information and communication technology, this sector has expended drastically within the last few years especially by the last quarter of twentieth century.
In that period people witnessed global s distribution f media images through computer screen, radio, newspapers, televisions and mobile phones. Development of information and communication technology went together with the rise of biggest information companies such as Microsoft, Intel, and Cisco. The rise of these companies, indicate quick advancement of technology.
2. Movement of people
There have been increasing movements of people from one country to another. These people include tourists, immigrants refugees, business travellers, scholars and diplomats, who move from one country or continent to another.
Most migration occurs between developing countries but there is also a flow of migrants to economically advanced countries from poor countries hence making the world interconnected
3. Spread of ideas and ideology
Spread of knowledge ideas, information and ideologies have been integral aspect of globalization. Direct foreign investment brings physical capital, technical, managerial and marketing skills as well as global economic policies in the production process.
The spread of these technical know how go hand in hand with diffusion of political ideologies, for instance multiparty democracy which have become worldwide use.
4. Free market economy
Globalization has brought about the international political economy through international financial institution policies and international trade. Free market ( neo liberalism) has become a dominant economic ideology of the world. The main emphasis of free market economy (economic liberalism) is to minimize the direct involvement of government in economic production
There is also a global flow of money often driven by interconnected currency. Stock exchanges and commodity markets. The flow of money is also facilitated by international financial institution such as IMF and the World Bank assisted by multilateral banks which have branches almost in every part of the World thus allows smooth money transaction all over the world.
6. The rise of intellectual property
The rise of intellectual properties or items in this case includes patents, copyrights of movies, computer software, compact discs, advertisements and financial services.
Refers to the policy of transferring assets and activities of public sectors to the private sectors or individual. Privatization is one of the Structural. Adjustment programs result’s which has been emphasized by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB) and donors from abroad, particularly western countries like, Britain, France, USA, Denmark and German
8. Trade liberalization
Trade liberalization refers to the reduction of tariffs and trade barriers to permit more foreign competition and foreign investment in the economy. It is a term which describes complete or partial elimination and reduction of trade barriers such as quotas and tariffs. Trade liberalization sometimes refers to free trade.
Free trade is the unrestricted flow of goods and services between countries , and is a name given to economic policies and parties supporting increases in such trade. Tanzania introduced trade liberalization as from mid 1980, following the IMF and World Bank. Conditional ties for giving aids to the needy nations.
9. Democratization process
Democratization is the process by which democracy expands within a state or across the world
Globalization is associated with global political reforms under the process called democratization.