Effect of globalization in Tanzania
Effects of globalization in Tanzania can be political, economical, social or cultural. The effect are both positive and negative as analyzed below.
1. ECONOMIC EFFECTS
On economic point of view, globalization as a phenomenon has both positive and negative effects on developing countries like Tanzania.
1. Effective utilization of natural resources
Through trade liberalization and free market economy, globalization has stimulated much utilization of natural resources. There are many companies which are investing in natural resources such as mining like that at Mwadui. Bulyankulu, Geita and Nzega.
Presence of these foreign companies enables Tanzania to utilize her resources for development of her people. This has been possible. This has been possible due, to the technology brought in Tanzania by the investing foreign companies.
2. Increase free trade
Globalization has made production and transportation of goods easier and faster than ever before. Therefore it enables Tanzania to get different varieties of goods of various quality and quantity from any corner of the world.
These goods include electronic devices (computer, mobile phones etc) food, medicine, automobiles and chemicals.
3. Opens doors for employment opportunities
In some instances, globalization creates employment opportunities to many people. For example foreign companies like Vodacom, Celtel (currently Airtel) and Tigo have created thousands or employment to Tanzanians.
It helps to raise national income
Through privatization of public sectors and investment by foreign investors the national income has increased through taxes paid to the government
4. Improvement of quality of goods and services
This has been due to the competition created by the foreign investors who use new technology from outside.
1. Decline and under development of industrial sector and local technology.
For developing countries like Tanzania free trade causes the decline and under development of industrial sector and local technology. The decline of industrial sector and local technology is caused by influx of goods from outside whose prices are low, yet with higher quality than local goods
Presence of multinational companies in Tanzania if not well controlled may acquire super profit through exploiting citizens and leaving them poor. Some companies tend to exploit the citizens by paying low salaries to local employees as compared to the foreigners. Also some companies evade paying tax to the government hence deny it of revenue.
2. Globalization sometimes creates unemployment
With growth of technology machines have greatly replaced human labor. For example, the introduction of electronic devices like computer technology and its programmes have led to eviction of many unskilled Tanzanians from their jobs
3. It leads to unequal exchange
Through privatization and capital mobility, Northern countries ( Europe, North America) undermine Southern countries ( Africa, Asia, South America) through unequal exchange. Most of potential natural resources in developing countries are owned by companies from developed countries hence undermining local communities
4. Increase in people’s expenditure
Globalization has made Tanzanians spend much of their resources in recreation activities instead of investing into productive programme. As an adaptation from western many Tanzania spend their money for wedding, buying luxurious items such as cars expensive clothes ect.
2. POLITICAL EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION
1. Globalization has brought important changes in the content of international law. Contemporary states like Tanzania, makes laws which comply with international laws and therefore it abides with them in such a way, that it can no longer mistreat her citizens the way it wishes. Issues like human rights, social justice are part of Tanzania’s constitution key laws and statutes
2. Under globalization, Tanzania has integrated itself into global politics through international agencies and organizations. New forms of multilateral and global politics have been established involving various governments including the government of Tanzania.
3. Globalization has made it necessary for poor countries like Tanzania of form strong political organization as a way of minimizing its negative impacts, the formation of African Union (AU), and the continuing process of formation of East Africa. Federation which Tanzania is a member are consequences of globalization
4. Globalization has speed up the democratic process in Tanzania. In order to promote democracy, Tanzania is adopting global democratic principles such as rule of law, transparency, multiparty, accountability and it is trying to implement them.
1. There has been centralization of political power in biggest capitalist nations. This situation has created an interstate condition whereby a political sovereignty of poor countries like Tanzania has been reduce in such a way that they are made more accountable to bigger like USA and UK than to their citizens.
2. Tanzania has been affected by global political disorders and terrorism. Bombing of USA embassy in Dar es Salaam in 1998 is a product of global political conflict which involved USA and Al- Qaeda terrorist who are against USA imperialism
2. Globalization has undermined the effort made by poor countries. Like Tanzania to form strong political organizations such as African Union or East Community due to spread of spheres of interests to the regions by biggest powers such as America and Western Europe.
AS a result countries like Tanzania have became more interested in cooperating with such capitalist countries rather than her neighboring countries like Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia etc wishing to get more profit
3. In some cases, globalization with its related political propagandas such as multipartism, transparency, accountability, rule of law and others create chaos in the country.
There are some politicians who have manipulated the above agendas of democracy, hence, threatened peace and security, which have existed since independence
4. Erosion of national control over governance. Globalization which has been facilitated by policies such as those of the world Bank, the IMF and the world Trade of organizations(WTO) which insist on Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) is closely tied to fee trade and expansion of commerce through the deregulation of markets. These policies are top-down and authoritative, so that developing countries like Tanzania are being told what to do and what not to due to these policies the economic structures and orientations of developing countries have been greatly influenced
3. Socio-cultural effects of globalization
1. Globalization has made diffusion of beliefs and values in international concern. Each community is struggling to achieve those world cultural standards in respect of human rights and better living standards.
2. Through development of information and communication technology like internet, fax machines, satellites and cable TV, globalization has managed to integrate all cultural practices in the world and created common cultural vision for the present and future generations. Those cultural practices are such as sports, games, music etc
3. Globalization has revealed out some bad cultural practices which have been performed by some communities. For instance, the issue of female genital mutilation which is now globally condemned with great emphasis by different international agencies
4. The expansion of the great world religious institutions particularly in Africa and Asia has transformed their socio-cultural values into modern and acceptable ones. In Tanzania for example, the spread of Christianity and Islam almost in every part of the country, has played a significant role in the eradication of unacceptable cultural practices such as genital mutilation, forded marriages, harassment of women, etc.
Globalization has improved provision of social services. Social services such as education, healthcare, communication have been improved. For example education has been improved due to the presence of such things like distance learning due to use of internet, video etc
5. Spread of religious fundamentalism. Globalization of communication networks has facilitated the easy spread of various religions across the world and strengthening of solidarity of the sects worldwide. Through cable television believers in Tanzania are accessed by preachers from Korea, Japan, USA, German etc
This worldwide spread of fundamentalism has not only increased social tension and insecurity, but also had adverse economic effects as now the solutions to social and economic problems are sought in prayer rather than hard work.
In Tanzania for example, some families have been torn apart by Christian fundamentalists, who have cut links with their parents or spouses because they are “saved” and therefore it is not proper for them to associate with the “unsaved” child care has been affected because some parents do spend too much time praying, including overnight wakes.
Also some youth have dropped out of school and opted for employment in the name of evangelism and the belief that once you are saved everything in life will work smoothly
6. The spread of materialist lifestyle attitudes. Materialist lifestyle attitudes consider consumption as the path to prosperity. Today if some one has enough material wealth he/she is considered as nothing. With this loss of vision, the very foundation which a people‘s culture is constructed is severely shaken. The foundation on which to construct behavioral patterns, ideas beliefs, values and attitudes on which people’s economic, social and political character can be based does no longer exist. In the traditional society, hard working was one of the key factors for a good leader or citizen but today the one who is rich even if he is a thief can be highly respected and considered the smart guy.
Some effects of globalization may be experienced in the assessment of pre existing African traditional songs and ceremonies which have now being replaced by new ones having western styles and contents. Examples of such things include the kitchen parties and beauty pageants
Negative effects on culture
1. Globalization has swept away cultural. Boundaries which existed before by the use of advanced information and communication technology such as TVs, radio, internet and magazines.
2. This situation has led to the destruction of inferior cultures of Africans including Tanzania. Most Tanzanians particularly the youth have been influenced with western ways of life.
3. Cultural globalization ties have been responsible for increase immoral behavior such as violence, prostitution, drug abuse, homosexuality and other related behaviors which increased as one become more integrated into global system
4. African native language including Kiswahili, have been undermined by foreign languages such as English, French, German etc. English for example, has become a globalization language such that it is viewed by many Tanzanian who can speak it as a sign of civilization. By so doing our local languages including Kiswahili are being abandoned or left to be used by less educated people who also wish they knew English.
4. Impacts of globalization on environment
It has enable various countries to solve global environmental problems together
1. Globalization cause pollution due to the constant emission of toxic gases from heavy industries of the developed countries
2. High exploitation of natural resources due to advancement in science and technology has led to serious environmental destruction such as deforestation, pollution f air, water and land.
3. Hundred of thousands of hectares of forests are destroyed through mining activities, construction of infrastructures like roads and railways, establishment of settlement ( house), preparation of fuel like charcoal firewood etc
4. Globalization has increased global warming due to gradual increase on temperature caused by emission of gases from industries and automobiles. These gases prevent the escape of heat from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere.
5. Third world countries including Tanzania have become dumping places for outdated material from the first word countries
Challenges of globalization in Tanzania
The following are challenges of globalization in Tanzania.
1. Low level of use of communication systems. In Tanzania the use of global communication system, such as internet, communication satellites and telephones is still low and underdeveloped.
Most communication systems are greatly confined in urban areas while the rural population which is bigger is still un connected with world communication system. This problem of uneven distribution of communication systems makes the rural population become isolated (marginalized) from a global village
2. Low production. Another challenge which Tanzania faces is low production. Tanzania’s economic sectors such as agriculture, industry, mining, fishing are not producing enough goods for export. The increase in international trade as one of the fundamental characteristic of globalization will make Tanzania a buyer of foreign goods more than what is sold.
3. The low level of education in Tanzania is posing a big challenge to Tanzania, under this globalize world. The level of education among Tanzanians is very low compared to other countries in the world.
This level of education fails to meet intellectual demands of globalization such as technological skills, managerial skills, entrepreneurial skills, marketing skills, etc. Thus Tanzania will not be able to compete in employment opportunities with other countries
4. Tanzania faces a problem of low savings and investment. Low savings, caused by low income may prolong the vicious cycle of poverty among Tanzanians
Moreover Tanzania faces a problem of low savings and investment. Low savings, caused by low income may prolong the vicious cycle of poverty among Tanzanians.
Solutions to the Challenges of globalization in Tanzania
1. Tanzania should create policies which focus on its own problems and lay strategies to reduce poverty by focusing on provision of social services such as healthcare, education and security to her citizens
2. Government of Tanzania should prepare a conducive environment for investors so as to stabilize the macro economy. Attractions to investors must go together with conditions which will make Tanzanians benefit from foreign investments rather than being the watchers.
3. Education should be given a significant priority and made compulsory to all people. Tanzanian government should make sure that most Tanzanians get quality education which will enable them cope with challenges brought by globalization
4. There should be proper utilization of both natural and human resources so as to boost the economic growth. Tanzania has been experiencing shortage of personnel like doctors from Tanzania who are working abroad. This is improper utilization of human resources.