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FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN EAST AFRICA

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FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION EAST AFRICA STATES​​ 

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN EAST AFRICA​​

EAST AFRICA STATES​​ | STATE FORMATION IN​​ PRE-COLONIAL​​ AFRICA| Types of states | STATE FORMATION | STATES IN PRECOLONIAL AFRICA | GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION

EAST AFRICA STATES​​ 

THE BUGANDA KINGDOM​​ 

The kingdom of Buganda was geographically located on the shores of lake Victoria (in the Interacustrine region) it grew to its apex by mid of the 19th​​ century.

This was highly centralized monarchy and was one of the daughter states that came into existence after the collapse of vastly expanded Bunyoro kitara kingdom.

There existed two traditions that seek to explain the origin of Buganda kingdom, ​​

​​ The Bunyoro tradition​​ which portrays and believes that the founder of Buganda kingdom was​​ Kato Kimera​​ the brother of​​ Isingoma Lukindi Mpunga​​ the author of​​ Luo Babito dynasty.​​ 

​​ The Buganda tradition​​ on the other hand argues that​​ Kintu​​ was the founder of Buganda kingdom, today between thirteen and fourteen clans of Buganda accept this second tradition.​​

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF BUGANDA KINGDOM​​

Geographical factor;

Buganda had abundant rainfall and the suitability of her soil for productive cultivation, this ensured adequate supply of food and surplus to be used in trading activity.​​ 

Good military;

Buganda was able to acquire guns and the army was well disciplined, the army launched successful attacks against her neighbors, for example Bunyoro and Toro​​ ​​ 

Good leadership

Kabaka Mutesa of Buganda was good, charismatic, ambitious and fore sighted leader who was well committed to develop his kingdom. Also Kabaka was believed to have divine power.​​ iv.​​ Availability of iron technology;​​ iron technology was a major raw material in making of tools and weapons.​​ 

Rapid population

This was due to high production of food, the population ensured availability of enough man power.​​

The decline of Bunyoro-kitara gave room to Buganda to rise quickly and undisturbed. ​​ 

Polygamism

The Buganda kingdom had approximately 52 clans, Kabaka married from almost very important clan. Hence intermarriage was a political weapon as it brought all clans together equality among clans and ensured loyalty to the kabaka‘s dictatorship. ​​ ​​ 

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Trade

The Buganda developed trading contacts with ​​ her neighbors that were under the governance of Kabaka, also the long distance traders acted as a catalyst for the growth of Buganda.​​ 

Agriculture

Good climatic condition and fertile soils favored agriculture, the main crops included yams and banana, this crops sometimes used as trade items also as food.​​

Conquest

The Buganda kingdom conquered the weaker Bunyoro kingdom.​​ 

Religious practices

Kabaka was a political leader who preceded over religious functions and was regarded by the Ganda as Semi-divine person LUBAALE (supreme God) possessed various gods, they included​​ Musoke​​ who was in charge or rain,​​ Mukasa​​ who was in charge of lakes and​​ Walumbe​​ who was in charge of death.​​ ​​ 

​​ BUNYORO KITARA​​

It originated from the tradition of Bunyoro, Batoro and Banyankole​​

It was founded by chwezi​​

Led by​​ mukama​​ as ​​ title of the king​​

It declined in 1500AD​​

NYAMWEZI KINDOM​​ 

Nyamwezi who lived in central Tanzania area group of the Bantu societies.Each of these societies had their own settlements headed by a chief and tilled Mtemi (Ntemi).

Ntemiship (chiefdom) was composed of people of shared background or kingship and believes. Each of the Nyamwezi kingdoms had a Ntemi at the centre who was helped by a council of elders the Wanyampala in administration.

Towards themiddle of 19th century more dynamic political structure developed among the Nyamwezi under Fundikira ,Nyungu ya mawe and Mirambo.

This led to the institution of the Ntemi becoming of the most powerful position;the several Nyamwezi settlements were united under one senior Ntemi.​​

​​ FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE NYAMWEZI KINGDOM OR CHIEFDOM​​ 

Factors for the rise of the Nyamwezi kingdom or chiefdom can be explained below as follows​​ 

Ngoni invasions – the Ngoni invasions in Western Tanganyika made the Nyamwezi people to unite in order to resist the Ngoni attackers.​​

The expansion of real trade into the regional trade/long distance trade due to emergency of wealthy traders like the Mirambo who made the effective use of Runganga.​​

Penetration of the Europeans into the coastal interior trade. This introduced new trading pattern to the Nyamwezi traders who joined together to effective resist European pressure to stop slave trade. 4)​​ ​​ The rise of Mirambo as trader and leader used their influence to unite the Nyamwezi land.​​

The use of the gun and gun powder by the Mirambo ‗s solders,this caused the weakening of watemi submissive to his rule.​​

Growth of the towns Example :Tabora and Ujiji.​​

Population growth.

Unity among the people.​​

THE KING DOM OF UKIMBU​​ 

Was led by Nyungu yam awe​​

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Founded by Nyungu ya mawe​​

It existed btn 1870 to 1880​​

KARAGWE KINGDOM​​

It was found in the North west of the present day Tanzania​​

It was also known as Bunyambo led by Omuggabe as a title of the leader​​

SULTANATES​​ 

Were centralized states that developed along the coast of east Africa, these were feudal states which emerged in 9th​​ century AD, they were also called city states eg, Mogadishu, Barawa, Kilwa, pate, Lamu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, Sofala and Malindi. ​​

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN EAST AFRICA

Factors For State Formation In Pre-Colonial Africa​​
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GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION  AND EXPANSION IN AFRICA​​ 

State formation in Africa was to a great extent due to the internal dynamics – the material conditions within African societies. Nevertheless, the material conditions did not operate in isolation as they were in hand supplemented by the natural and external factors.

So the important factors for the state formation were;​​ 

1. Favourable geographical advantages.​​ 

This was a combination of good climate with reliable rainfall and fertile soils. Such a climate favoured permanent food crop production that developed permanently settled communities and population expansion.

This explains the emergence of powerful states like Buganda, Bunyoro and Karagwe in the Interlacustrine Region and Oyo, Dahomey and Benin in the Equatorial Region of West Africa.​​

2. Efficient leadership and administrative systems.​​ 

Societies endowed with ambitious leaders like Mansa Musa of Mali, Kabaka Katerega of Buganda and Mkwawa of the Hehe, rose to greatness. Such leaders put in place strong administration and armies, united their people and organised production and trade.

Efficient administrative system enforced law and order. Typical examples are the Parliamentary systems of Buganda (Lukiiko) and Oyo (Oyo Messi).​​

3. The role of trade.​​

Participation in trading activities mainly, long distance trades had vital implication in the making of powerful states in pre-colonial Africa. They accumulated wealth through profits and​​ taxes/tribute from traders and also firearms which they used to strengthen their states.

Remarkably, the Trans-Saharan trade with the development of states like Mali and Songhai and the East African Long Distance trade with states like Buganda and Nyamwezi.

4. Strong armies.​​ 

The role of strong armies like the Rugaruga of the Nyamwezi and Abarusula of Bunyoro cannot be underrated. The armies were instrumental in keeping law and order, defence against foreign invasions, conquest of weak neighbouring societies for expansion and for collection of tributes/taxes.

By powerful armies men like Samore Toure of the Mandika, Mansa Musa of Mali and Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe of the Nyamwezi and Mkwawa of the Hehe were able to build large commercial empires.​​

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5. Technological advancement.​​ 

Most significant was iron technology that definitely improved productive forces greatly. Societies with Iron works like Buganda and Bunyoro advanced economic activities like agricultural, industry and trade.

As iron instruments improved efficiency, food production increased to support population expansion and production of surplus was realised to make trade possible. Most crucial also was improvement in weaponry for state defence and expansion.​​

6. Population expansion.

Population increase was mostly due to reliable food supply and security. It led to intense land competition between clans or societies leading to conquest of weak ones. Large population availed abundant supply of labour and armies for state building.

High population in the Interlacustrine Region led to powerful states like Buganda and Toro and in West African forest region states like Oyo and Dahomey.​​

7. Migration.​​ 

The early migrations played a vital role in state building as the moving peoples carried with them new skills in new areas where passed or settled. Notable case is the Ngoni Migration with formation of states like, Sotho, Ndebele and Hehe in South, Central and East Africa. In the Interacustrine Region and the Congo, states like Buganda and Mani Kongo were largely due Eastern Bantu migration.​​

8. Conquest.​​ 

Some clans or communities developed into powerful states by conquering weak neighbours to absorb their land and people. For example a small state of Kangaba expanded into weak neighbours like Kankan to form a large Mali Empire. Also King Shaka conquered the weak Nguni communities to build a strong Zulu Kingdom.​​

9. The role of religion.​​ 

The influence of religion in state formation and growth was its uniting factor and significance in shaping leadership, administrative and judicial roles of societies. African traditional Religion, Islam and Christianity had greater role.

Notable states where traditional religion was a strong factor include Buganda and ancient kingdoms of Ghana and Zimbabwe; Islam played a recommendable job in building of states like Egypt, ancient Mali, Songhai, Bornu and Mandika while Christianity was responsible for Ethiopia.​​

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