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FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES

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FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN NORTH-EASTERN AFRICA FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA​​

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES IN​​ AFRICA​​ | STATE FORMATION IN​​ PRE-COLONIAL​​ AFRICA| Types of states | STATE FORMATION | STATES IN PRECOLONIAL AFRICA | GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION |FOREST STATES

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES

1. THE BENIN EMPIRE​​

Benin empire was a very small state made up of the Edo speaking people. The highest authority at the time were chiefs known as​​ Ogiso​​ which meant the ‗Kings of the Sky‘ and the administrative centre was Ubinu.

Between 1388 – 1431 there was a series of civil wars which divided the Edo. After the death of the last Ogiso, his son Prince Ekaladerhan left for exile and established himself in Ile-Ife, so when the Edo people requested his return, he sent his son, Prince Oranmiyan who took up the throne.​​

EXPANSION INTO CITY-STATE EMPIRE ​​

By 15th C the empire expanded into a city-state under the leadership of Oba Ewuare the Great​​

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE​​ 

  • Some of capable rulers the greatest of whom was Ewuare​​
  • Good centralized system of Government​​
  • Trade​​
  • Unity​​
  • Development of Handicraft Industry​​

DECLINE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE​​ 

  • Introduction of slave trade​​ ​​ Trans- Atlantic trade​​
  • Firearms introduced through European trade caused tribal wars that led to the final decline of the Benin Empire.​​

2. THE EMPIRE OF OYO​​ 

Oyo empire began in the late 14th C or early 15th C likely 1388 – 1431. The people of Oyo were Oranmiyan/Oranyan, their capital was​​ Oyo-Ile​​ and the King of Oyo was called​​ Alafin​​ who shared power with​​ Oyo-mesi​​ (they were responsible for the selection of Alafin).​​ The​​ Bashoran​​ was the leader of the army.​​ Oyo conquered Nupe and Borga​​

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE OYO EMPIRE​​ 

  • It had organized political system headed by a number of great Alaafins​​
  • Strong organized army​​
  • Agricultural activities​​
  • Development of local industries​​
  • Slave trade​​
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  • Dahomey tributary​​

DECLINE OF THE OYO EMPIRE​​ 

  • Conflict between Alafin and Basharon​​
  • Conquest from the Fulani and Dahomey​​
  • Civil wars and disunity​​

3. DAHOMEY EMPIRE​​ 

Dahomey rose after the decline of Oyo in the 19thC. it was founded by the​​ Fon people. It had good leaders such as King​​ Aguja​​ and​​ king Gezo​​ who built the Royal Palaces of Dahomey.​​

THE RISE OF THE DAHOMEY EMPIRE IN THE 18th C​​ 

  • Growth of centralized and powerful monarchy ​​
  • Boyul succession system was effective​​
  • Strong army​​
  • Good leadership of​​ King Gezo​​ and later​​ Aguja ​​​​
  • Control of slave trade​​

DECLINE OF DAHOMEY​​ 

Dahomey declined after the arrival of the French.​​

3. ASANTE EMPIRE​​ 

Asante or Ashanti empire was found as a result of emergence of several cities in the region of​​ Kumasi. The people of Asante were​​ Akan​​ ruled by the​​ Oyuko clan.​​

The King was​​ Obiri Yeboa​​ who was​​ Osei Tutu. The capital city of Asante or Ashanti was​​ Kumasi. The symbol of Asante union and power was a​​ Golden stool.

The title of the ruler of Asante was known as​​ Asantehene​​ .​​ 

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ASANTE​​ 

  • Agricultural activities​​
  • Development of local industries​​
  • Some of its capable rulers e.g. OseiTutu ​​
  • Well organized political system​​
  • Trade​​

DECLINE

The state declined after the arrival of Europeans.​​

FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION FOREST STATES

Factors For State Formation Forest States Factors For State Formation In North-Eastern Africa Factors For State Formation In Pre-Colonial Africa​​

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GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION  AND EXPANSION IN AFRICA​​ 

State formation in Africa was to a great extent due to the internal dynamics – the material conditions within African societies. Nevertheless, the material conditions did not operate in isolation as they were in hand supplemented by the natural and external factors.

So the important factors for the state formation were;​​ 

1. Favourable geographical advantages.​​ 

This was a combination of good climate with reliable rainfall and fertile soils. Such a climate favoured permanent food crop production that developed permanently settled communities and population expansion.

This explains the emergence of powerful states like Buganda, Bunyoro and Karagwe in the Interlacustrine Region and Oyo, Dahomey and Benin in the Equatorial Region of West Africa.​​

2. Efficient leadership and administrative systems.​​ 

Societies endowed with ambitious leaders like Mansa Musa of Mali, Kabaka Katerega of Buganda and Mkwawa of the Hehe, rose to greatness. Such leaders put in place strong administration and armies, united their people and organised production and trade.

Efficient administrative system enforced law and order. Typical examples are the Parliamentary systems of Buganda (Lukiiko) and Oyo (Oyo Messi).​​

3. The role of trade.​​

Participation in trading activities mainly, long distance trades had vital implication in the making of powerful states in pre-colonial Africa. They accumulated wealth through profits and​​ taxes/tribute from traders and also firearms which they used to strengthen their states.

Remarkably, the Trans-Saharan trade with the development of states like Mali and Songhai and the East African Long Distance trade with states like Buganda and Nyamwezi.

4. Strong armies.​​ 

The role of strong armies like the Rugaruga of the Nyamwezi and Abarusula of Bunyoro cannot be underrated. The armies were instrumental in keeping law and order, defence against foreign invasions, conquest of weak neighbouring societies for expansion and for collection of tributes/taxes.

By powerful armies men like Samore Toure of the Mandika, Mansa Musa of Mali and Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe of the Nyamwezi and Mkwawa of the Hehe were able to build large commercial empires.​​

5. Technological advancement.​​ 

Most significant was iron technology that definitely improved productive forces greatly. Societies with Iron works like Buganda and Bunyoro advanced economic activities like agricultural, industry and trade.

As iron instruments improved efficiency, food production increased to support population expansion and production of surplus was realised to make trade possible. Most crucial also was improvement in weaponry for state defence and expansion.​​

6. Population expansion.

Population increase was mostly due to reliable food supply and security. It led to intense land competition between clans or societies leading to conquest of weak ones. Large population availed abundant supply of labour and armies for state building.

High population in the Interlacustrine Region led to powerful states like Buganda and Toro and in West African forest region states like Oyo and Dahomey.​​

7. Migration.​​ 

The early migrations played a vital role in state building as the moving peoples carried with them new skills in new areas where passed or settled. Notable case is the Ngoni Migration with formation of states like, Sotho, Ndebele and Hehe in South, Central and East Africa. In the Interacustrine Region and the Congo, states like Buganda and Mani Kongo were largely due Eastern Bantu migration.​​

8. Conquest.​​ 

Some clans or communities developed into powerful states by conquering weak neighbours to absorb their land and people. For example a small state of Kangaba expanded into weak neighbours like Kankan to form a large Mali Empire. Also King Shaka conquered the weak Nguni communities to build a strong Zulu Kingdom.​​

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9. The role of religion.​​ 

The influence of religion in state formation and growth was its uniting factor and significance in shaping leadership, administrative and judicial roles of societies. African traditional Religion, Islam and Christianity had greater role.

Notable states where traditional religion was a strong factor include Buganda and ancient kingdoms of Ghana and Zimbabwe; Islam played a recommendable job in building of states like Egypt, ancient Mali, Songhai, Bornu and Mandika while Christianity was responsible for Ethiopia.​​

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