FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN NORTH-EASTERN AFRICA
FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN NORTH EASTERN AFRICA | STATE FORMATION IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA| Types of states | STATE FORMATION | STATES IN PRECOLONIAL AFRICA | GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION
Origins: According to archaeological evidence, the Egyptian state arose between 1500 and 500 BC.
The evidence also show that by this time there were already villages of self sufficient producers who grew wheat, barley and kept animals.
These producers formed permanent settlements as they increased in population. The kingdom was under the leadership of Pharaoh as a title of the king, Menes was the famous Pharaoh who led the development of Egypt
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE EGYPTIAN STATE
<> The development of agriculture and pastoralism Specialization of labour ii. The rise of Menes who united the upper and the lower Egypt iii. Development of local industries iv. Taxation
<> Strong Army vi. Development of productive forces, Therefore anyone with the following rose to power:
- Anyone who could control disasters by rituals and charms
- Anyone who had experience and stored knowledge of floods
- Anyone who had knowledge of predicting floods
CLASSES IN THE EGYPTIAN STATE
The ruling class – Consisted of the Pharaoh who was at the top followed by the nobility, priests, court officials and other officials- Followed by administrators of the people called the Vizier.
The working class – The peasants and slaves
THE KINGDOM OF ETHIOPIA / Axum
Ethiopia started as a small kingdom known as Axum, was founded near the red sea coast by a dynasty of
Sabean from the other side of the Red Sea. The Ethiopia arose around 1000 BC, Menelik 1 founded the
Ethiopian empire in 1st century BC, and the kingdom was occupied by Axumites
FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF THE ETHIOPIAN STATE
- Strong leadership
- Unity among the people
- Growth of local industries
- Strong army
CLASSES IN ETHIOPIA
- Feudal Lords
- Peasants (tenants and serfs)
Feudalism was consolidated by the introduction of Christianity (Ethiopian orthodox churh) during the 4th AD and King Ezana, was the first to be converted. King Zagwe built 30 churches. A descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba. Expansion done by 3 emperors (leaders): Zagwe Dynasty – 12th C – 13th C, King Theodore – 19th C – 1855 – 1868 Menelik II – 19th C – 1889 – 1913 Menelik II made Addis Ababa his Capital
THE KINGDOM OF NUBIA
Nubia lay in the area that cut across the borders of modern Sudan, Egypt, and Ethiopia. The Nubian State arose around 200 BC. It was called Kush and its capital was Napata. In 3rd C the capital shifted to Meroe.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE/GROWTHOF THE NUBIAN STATE
- Agricultural activities
- Availability of valuable goods e.g. Gold and Ivory
- Development of local industries
DECLINE OF NUBIA
- Feudal lords were against the peasants
- Attacks by Muslims
FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION IN NORTH-EASTERN AFRICA
YOU MIGHT ALSO READ THE FACTORS FOR THE FORMATION AND EXPANSION OF:
- East African states
- Western Sudanic states
- Central African states
- The forest states
- North Eastern African states
- South African states
GENERAL FACTORS FOR STATE FORMATION AND EXPANSION IN AFRICA
State formation in Africa was to a great extent due to the internal dynamics – the material conditions within African societies. Nevertheless, the material conditions did not operate in isolation as they were in hand supplemented by the natural and external factors.
So the important factors for the state formation were;
1. Favourable geographical advantages.
This was a combination of good climate with reliable rainfall and fertile soils. Such a climate favoured permanent food crop production that developed permanently settled communities and population expansion.
2. Efficient leadership and administrative systems.
Societies endowed with ambitious leaders like Mansa Musa of Mali, Kabaka Katerega of Buganda and Mkwawa of the Hehe, rose to greatness. Such leaders put in place strong administration and armies, united their people and organised production and trade.
Efficient administrative system enforced law and order. Typical examples are the Parliamentary systems of Buganda (Lukiiko) and Oyo (Oyo Messi).
3. The role of trade.
Participation in trading activities mainly, long distance trades had vital implication in the making of powerful states in pre-colonial Africa. They accumulated wealth through profits and taxes/tribute from traders and also firearms which they used to strengthen their states.
Remarkably, the Trans-Saharan trade with the development of states like Mali and Songhai and the East African Long Distance trade with states like Buganda and Nyamwezi.
4. Strong armies.
The role of strong armies like the Rugaruga of the Nyamwezi and Abarusula of Bunyoro cannot be underrated. The armies were instrumental in keeping law and order, defence against foreign invasions, conquest of weak neighbouring societies for expansion and for collection of tributes/taxes.
By powerful armies men like Samore Toure of the Mandika, Mansa Musa of Mali and Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe of the Nyamwezi and Mkwawa of the Hehe were able to build large commercial empires.
5. Technological advancement.
Most significant was iron technology that definitely improved productive forces greatly. Societies with Iron works like Buganda and Bunyoro advanced economic activities like agricultural, industry and trade.
As iron instruments improved efficiency, food production increased to support population expansion and production of surplus was realised to make trade possible. Most crucial also was improvement in weaponry for state defence and expansion.
6. Population expansion.
Population increase was mostly due to reliable food supply and security. It led to intense land competition between clans or societies leading to conquest of weak ones. Large population availed abundant supply of labour and armies for state building.
High population in the Interlacustrine Region led to powerful states like Buganda and Toro and in West African forest region states like Oyo and Dahomey.
The early migrations played a vital role in state building as the moving peoples carried with them new skills in new areas where passed or settled. Notable case is the Ngoni Migration with formation of states like, Sotho, Ndebele and Hehe in South, Central and East Africa. In the Interacustrine Region and the Congo, states like Buganda and Mani Kongo were largely due Eastern Bantu migration.
Some clans or communities developed into powerful states by conquering weak neighbours to absorb their land and people. For example a small state of Kangaba expanded into weak neighbours like Kankan to form a large Mali Empire. Also King Shaka conquered the weak Nguni communities to build a strong Zulu Kingdom.
9. The role of religion.
The influence of religion in state formation and growth was its uniting factor and significance in shaping leadership, administrative and judicial roles of societies. African traditional Religion, Islam and Christianity had greater role.
Notable states where traditional religion was a strong factor include Buganda and ancient kingdoms of Ghana and Zimbabwe; Islam played a recommendable job in building of states like Egypt, ancient Mali, Songhai, Bornu and Mandika while Christianity was responsible for Ethiopia.