HISTORY FORM THREE REVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
QUESTIONS ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM
Describe the motives behind the scramble for and partition of Africa
why did Europeans nations show an increasing interest in east Africa in the nineteenth century?
Account for six reasons that led to the scramble for and partition of Africa in the second half of the 19th century
Why African colonization during the 19th century
-European balance of power
-Areas to settle excess population of Europe (settlers).
Why did Egypt attract imperialist powers during the scramble for and partition of Africa
Why the position of Egypt of special importance to imperialist power during the scramble for and partition of Africa
Relate the opening of Suez canal with the scramble for and colonies in East Africa
Why some parts of Africa experienced intensive scramble for and partition.
Explain why some areas in Africa experienced more intensive scramble than others
-presence of navigable rivers like Nile
-good climatic condition
-good fertile soil
-presence of large population which support market and cheap labour.
-accessibility to the interior
-absence of tropical diseases
Give an outline of steps towards the colonization of southern Africa. Mention and discuss three motives
-penetration of agents of colonialism
-scramble for and partition
-The Berlin conference.
-establishment of colonial rule
-establishment of political control
Which tactics and methods did imperialist powers use in establishing colonialism in east Africa.
Discuss the methods used by Europeans to establish colonial rule in east Africa
what did the Germany use in the conquest and occupation of main land in Tanzania?
Analyse six methods that were used by the imperialist in imposing colonial rule in Africa.
diplomacy/signing of bogus treaty. eg British with Chief Lobengula (Rudd treaty), Carl Peter’s with chief Makoko of Zaire, Carl Peters with Chief Mangungo of Msovero, Morogoro
collaboration (use of puppets). Colonialists employed Africans to impose European rule. They were puppets and spies of colonial masters in return of political or material gains. eg British used Semei Kakunguru, Apollo Kagwa and Stanislaus Mugwanya to impose colonialism in Uganda, also used chief Lenana of Maasai to facilitate colonial penetration in Maasailand, furthermore they used puppets in Ansant and Dante societies.
military/conquest. eg Portuguese in Mozambique and Angola, Africans were led by Makanga and Massingire, German in Tanganyika (against Abushir and Bwana Heri in coastal areas, Majimaji in South West Tanganyika etc).
intimidation / gun boat technique. It involved diplomacy followed by military means. eg It was used by British against Jaja of Opobo in West Africa.
– Use of agents of colonialism such as missionaries, traders, explorers and company and associations.
– Use of administrative methods. eg indirect rule, direct rule and assimilation policy which forced Africans to be under colonial domination.
-Ideological methods. eg through western education (Africans were created servants of colonialism eg clerks), racism, religion, language etc.
– Use of infrastructures as roads, railways, ports and airports.
With concrete examples show why the conflict between Africans and the whites during the colonial period was inevitable.
With examples explain the reasons for African resistance to colonial rule
The European did not find it’s easy to establish their rule in east Africa. Discuss this statement give examples of African resistance from east Africa.
-land alienation eg Nandi resistance in Kenya
-taxation eg Abushiri and Bwana Hero resistance
-forced labor eg Nandi resistance in Kenya
-low wages eg Majimaji war
-long working hours
-lose of freedom
-disrespectful of African culture eg Kaffir wars in Xhosa vs British
-dis-regard of Africa local rulers
-use of cohesive apparatus like coarts,prison,army,police
-cattle confiscation eg Nama NAD Herero vs Germans in south west Africa.
-adultery eg German officers during MajiMaji war in 1905/7
Africans resistance against imposition of colonial rule failed due to Africans technological backwardness. Discuss
Why Germany managed to colonize Tanganyika in spite of strong resistance from the people
-poor believes like magic water (maji maji war)
-use of poor tactics/methods of fighting
-technological backwardness (use of poor fighting tools)
-poor economic base
-dis-unity among Tanganyika tribes, most fought on their own.
-inferiority complex of African.
-poor military communication.
-much knowledge of African continent by whites (through agents of colonialism)
– more war experience by whites.
-lack of proper war preparations by Africans.
what brought about the chimurenga war in Zimbabwe (south Rhodesia) in 1896 to 1897?
Why did the Shona and Ndebele take up arms against the British in southern Rhodesia in 1965
Account for Nandi resistance against their land occupation by the British.
-long working hours
-loose of freedom
-discourage of African culture
-dis-regard of Africa local rulers
-use of cohesive apparatus like courts, prison,army,police
What is the importance of majimaji resistance in in the history of Tanzania.
What were the main effects of majimaji reprising in Tanganyika?
The Maji –Maji war of 1905-1907 in Tanganyika remains a symbol of the African struggle against colonial rule. Justify.
-it was a lesson to whites that African were not ready to be colonized
-colonialist made some reforms to their administrative system by employing young educates Africans in the colonial government
-it stimulated African nationalism. Other African states used Majimaji as their motivation of unity during their independence struggle.
-stimulate unity among the people
-it contributed to the Tanganyika independence
-it taught Africans a bitter lesson that without proper preparations and strong unity, they could never win against whites.
What were the causes and effects of the 1884/1885 Berlin conference
-to resolve conflict among the European powers by peacefully means
-Germany ambition to prohibit French interest in Africa under chancellor Bismarck
-division and re-division of African continent among the European powers
-setting of demarcations/boundaries
-loose of African freedom
-European conflict was resolved by peacefully means
-replacement of ethnics/tribes e.g.;- the maasai of Tanzania and Kenya
-introduction of colonialism and its outcomes.
-it postponed the war for about thirty years until the first imperialistic war of 1914
-abolition of slave trade
-navigable rivers should remain free to users
-notification principle i.e. If got a colony should announce to others
– protection of agents of colonialism such as missionaries, traders, researchers and doctors
Explain why Samore toure managed to contain French for so long.
Account for Ethiopia’s successful resistance against colonialism.
-early diplomacy contact with other European Nations
-good leadership of Samore Toure
-good and well organized army
-possession of better weapons
-proud of Africa (Ethiopia)
-good economic base. He was a wealth leader. He paid his soldiers well.
-he had an industry to manufacture and repair his weapons
Show the background to and the immediate effects of the system of indirect rule
With particular reference to Nigeria, examine the long term effects of the system of indirect rule.
-Africa loose political freedom
-exploitative in nature
-brought about social stratification/classes
-brought about regionalism
-lead to un-balance development in the regions
-creation of puppet leaders
-it strengthened divide and rule
Compare and contrast British and French systems of administration as practiced in Africa during the colonial period.
Compare and contrast the Germany direct rule with the British indirect rule system as applied in east Africa.(NECTA 1985) 25.With examples from east Africa, to what extent was the British colonial system of indirect rule indirect
Explain six differences between Direct and Indirect rule
-both are exploitative
-both are colonial administrative system
-both aimed to meet colonial demands
-both use cohesive apparatus e.g. Courts, police and army
-both applied in Africa.
-both were racist ie they both used whites in top positions.
-indirect rule preserved African administrative system while direct/assimilation not
-indirect rule use African chiefs while direct use jumbe and akida
-indirect rule respect Africans while direct rule not
-indirect rule was not harsh while direct rule was so harsh
What do you understand by the policy of indirect rule which was applied by British colonial government in east Africa?
The system was inexpensive, British lacked enough people to administer colonies, avoided clashes with natives, administration structures existed in Nigeria and Buganda, geographical difficulties in controlling colonial Africa
The British exercised direct rule in some parts of Zimbabwe because the natives and traditional chiefs opposed colonial rule.
By using six points, explain how the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885 helped the European countries to prevent war that would have occurred due to the scramble for colonies.
– Each power claimed a part of African territory was required to inform all other European powers that signed the treaty.
– Each power attended the conference was committed to abolition of slave trade.
– Effective occupation to those European states claimed to any part of Africa.
– The conference agreed on freedom of navigation on the Niger which was put under British authority.
– Congo was confirmed as a FREE STATE PROPERTY of Belgian under king Leopold 2.
– The conference agreed on protection of agents of colonialism who were also agents of civilization.
Describe the operation and effects of the migratory labor system in colonial east Africa
Migrant labors were useful to the capitalist during colonial economy in Africa. Substantiate this statement by giving six points
Migrant labors were the labors that were recruited from distant areas and sent to production areas. The colonialist created some areas where they were recruiting labor; these areas were called RESERVED AREAS.
Example in Kigoma, southern Tanganyika and northern Uganda in East Africa. Benin and Nigeria in west Africa.Labours were then sent to production areas through different means of transport like railway/Transit coups and then were signing contracts.
-it was cheap since were paid low wages
-easy to control since they were recruited from distant areas hence not easy for them to unite and protest.
-migrant labor ensured constant supply of labor since they lived in camps so they could have provided labor power when needed.
-it was profitable since migrant labors were the markets of colonial masters
-in ability of labor to escape.
– source of income to colonialists eg they paid for the dormitories they lived, electricity, water and other services.
Effects of migrant labor:-
-separation of families
-shortage of man power
-Hunger, famine and starvation.
-un balanced development between rural and urban areas
-there was decline in population especially in the reserved areas.
-poor growth of African economies.
Identify the mechanism through which cheap labor was obtained in settler economy in Kenya
How did colonial government ensure the constant supply of labor in their colonies in east Africa
Elaborate six techniques used by colonialist to obtain labors during the colonial period
-introduction of taxation in cash like hut tax, titi tax, head tax.
-formulations of legislations e.g. Registration ordinance of 1921(kipande system), sisal labor beural (SILABU) IN 1944, pass laws in South Africa etc
-creation of labor reserves eg Singida, Shinyanga and Kigoma
-destruction of African economies and introduction of foreign goods
-creation of infrastructures system e.g. Railways, roads etc.
How the colonial state did established and consolidate settler agriculture in Kenya
How did colonial state uphold the interest of white settlers in Kenya
How was migrant labour beneficial to the capitalists during the colonial period? Limit your response to six points.
-ensure with constant supply of cheap labor
-provision of social services such as hospitals, schools, electricity and water.
-exemption from paying taxes so they can make profits
-Provision of capital to settlers and bank services
-ensure with fertile land through enacting of land crown ordinances, especially in Kikuyu highlanda
-assured them with defense and security to white settlers i.e. reserving special areas for them
-construction of transport and other infrastructures to easier shipping/transport their goods/raw materials
-provision of loans to settlers with very low interest rates
-settlers were given monopoly to produce highly valuable crops such as coffee
Describe briefly the common characteristics of settler and plantation agriculture in colonial Africa
-massive use of unskilled labor
-exsercive use of coercion i.e. land alienation, taxation and forced labor
-large land was cultivated
-both were exploitative forms of agriculture
-most fertile land owned by whites
-creation of reserve areas for provision of labour
How did colonial economy differ from pre- colonial economy
-Colonial economy there is exploitation while in pre-colonial economy no exploitation
-excessive use of coercion in colonial economy while in pre-colonial not
-Import-export oriented in colonial economy while production for consumption in pre-colonial
-monoculture oriented in colonial economy while production of food crops
-colonial economy under whites control while pre-colonial economy Africans themselves controlled
-colonial economy there were advanced in technology while pre-colonial poor technology
-colonial economy bases on production of cash crops while pre colonial economy was based on production of food crops.
-colonial economy trade was dominates by whites and Asians while in pre colonial economy trade was dominates by African chiefs and traders like Mohammed el Murjeb aka Tippu Tipu
-colonial economy experienced construction of physical infrastructures such as roads, railways and ports while pre colonial economy was dominated by trade routes.
-colonial economy dominated by international exploited trade while pre colonial economy was dominated by regional and local trade.
why was settler economy success in Kenya but failure in Uganda
Identify six factors which determined the variation of agricultural systems during the colonial period
-colonial policy whether it supported that particular system or not
-nature of transport and network systems
-number of whites in the colony
-strength of political system i.e. Uganda was feudal system (African resistance)
-role of the governor and his interests eg Lord Delamore stressed on settler economy in Kenya while Harry Johnson stressed on peasant economy in Uganda.
-diseases, areas affected by diseases normally peasant economy was dominated as many settled were not interested in these areas
How did the system of colonial economy in Kenya influence the nature and character of the struggle for independence in that country?
The following situations caused by colonial economy lead Kenya to use armed struggle in Kenya:-
-poor and harsh working conditions.
Analyze six tact used by the colonialist to establish colonial economy
Outline the mechanism through which colonial economy was established in Africa
-creation( Land alienation, forced labor, taxation in cash, money economy)
How do you understand by the term de-industrialization policy? How was it applied in Africa:-
De-industrialization policy was policy that developed by Europeans to prevent the development of industries in Africa.it was done in the following ways:-
-Importation of manufactured goods to compete with those of Africans
-laws were made to discourage industries in Africa.e.g in Congo chopping of hands of crafts men
-physical destruction of industries
-spread of western civilization
-construction of cottage industries
With examples show how the establishment of colonial economy in Africa affected the african societies
– Introduction of money economy
-building of infrastructure
– new products become available
– technology is brought
– neglect of food crops
– ending of the barter system
– destruction of traditional economic practices
– ntroduction of new crops like sisal/cotton/pyrethrum,
– Uneven distribution of social and physical infrastructure
– utilization of cheap African labour
Distinguish settler economy from peasant economy during colonial period
-Settler economy was supervised by the colonialist themselves while in peasant employ African chiefs
-in settler Europeans settled in the colonies while in peasant Europeans lived to mother country
– Settlers interest were uphold by colonial government while in peasant not
-much use of forced labor compared to peasant economy
-settler economy burnt production of food crops while in peasant economy food production was encouraged
– in settler land was owned by the settlers but in peasant land was owned by indginous themselves.
What was wrong with colonial education system in Tanganyika
Show the main features and characteristics of colonial education in east Africa
-pyramidal in shape
-based on racial discrimination
-based on biasness i.e. Son of chiefs and loyal families
-more theoretical rather than practical
-it based on gender discrimination
WEAKNESSES/WRONG WITH COLONIAL EDUCATION:-
-create classes among the society
-create puppet leaders
-spread of western civilization
-un-balance development in the societies
-Africans remains the producers of raw materials
-it brought about intellectual arrogance
Show the economic and social effects to Kenya –Uganda railway line
-exploitation of raw materials
-increase of settler interest in Kenya
-migrant labor were made possible
-availability of flourished goods in Kenya and Uganda
-increase of the number of whites
-depopulation during construction
-increase of forced labor
Briefly analyses the pattern of colonial infrastructures (railways, roads, ports and harbors) in mainland Tanzania showing how it facilitated the exploitation of the country
-they were constructed in the production zones
-they were constructed in missionaries centers
-they were started from the interior to costal areas
-they were constructed to labor recruitment zones like central line
– to transport raw materials from interior to the coast
-to transport flourished goods from costal to the interior
-to transport troops to suppress resistance
-to transport migrant labor from recruitment /labor reserves
-to transport whites to the production zones
Colonial social services consolidated colonialism in Africa. Justify this statement by giving six points
-Provision of housing to colonialist attracted them
-Water services assured them with good living and industrial activities
-Railways, roads, harbor enable them to import and export material and themselves
-Electricity assured them with source of energy to run machines and home use.
-Hospital assured them with cure and treatment for them hence encourage colonialism
-Education helped to pas their culture, economy and get man power to assist