History form two essay questions pdf download, History form two essay questions pdf, History form two essay questions and answers pdf download, History form two essay questions and answers pdf, History form two essay questions and answers, history form two questions and answers pdf, NECTA past papers form two history, history form two topical questions


 1. What were the consequences of Ngoni movement into east Africa in the 19th century (NECTA 1989)

OR 2. Asses the social and economic impact of the major migrations into east Africa during the 19th century? (NECTA 1985) OR 3. Using specific examples, how

3. Expansion of the Ngoni people during the 19th century affected the people of east Africa and central Africa (NECTA 2004)


Ngoni people were the people who originated from south Africa (ZULU/NATAL) Land. By 19th century the Ngoni people started to migrate into groups from natal land northwards where they found others in east  Africa been leaded by their leaders like;-Mpputa Maseko,Zwangedaba and gwangara.


-Expansionist of Shaka Zulu

-population increase

-shortage of land

-increase of European interest at the cape which stimulate conflict -severe drought by 19th century -famine and hunger.



-Decline of trade i.e. long distance trade

-destruction of farms

-decline of economy



-lack of security

-famine and hunger

-separation of families

-destruction of properties


-formation of  new states like nyamwezi under Mirambo,Hehe under Munyigumba

-introduction of new methods of fighting eg cow horn formation, hand to hand fighting and assegai (short stabbing spears).

-rise of powerful leaders such as Nyungu ya Mawe of Ukimbu.

-Fall of states in which Ngoni passes through eg Rwozi in Rhodesia.

4. Explain six social factors for early interactions in Africa;.


5. Long before the coming of colonialists, Africans were interacted socially. How far this is true?






Searching for -medicine -music and dance.

-Rituals and funerals.

6. Elaborate six factors that contributed to the occurance of Mfecane during the 19th century. (Necta 2019, QN 8).


Mfecane or Difecane was the wars which originated from Nguni speaking people.


– Wars among the Nguni.

-Shortage of land for economic activities.

– Coming of whites


1.Explain six characteristics of the first non-exploitative mode of production (NECTA 2015) OR.

2. The first non exploitative mode of production has its distinctive features from the rest. Comment on the notation.


-People lived by hunting and gathering

-people lived in small groups,

-There was no exploitation of man by man (no classes existed)

-Work was done communally

-Poor technology was dominant, man used crude tools such as stone tools.

-They lived the primitive life

-It is the only mode which every society passed.

– No surplus produced.

The only mode of production in which man existed and lived with other animals J. Man depended entirely on nature (surrounding environment)


1. Examine the reasons for the development of the trans-Saharan trade and the effects it brought in the western Sudanic states (NECTA 2010, 2012) OR 2. What factors gave to the rise of Trans-Saharan trade (2001)


2. Examine the growth and development of the famous west African trade which involved gold and salt as major trade items in the 19th century.


Trans-Saharan trade refers to the trade which was conducted between the tour ages, berbers-western states and the people from middle east and far east across the sahara-desert.it involves the goods like;-salt, diamond, gold, spices, cowries from Africa, and manufactured goods like silk clothes,daga,pangas etc. from middle and far east.


-Good climatic condition which supported growth of crops needed in the trade

-peace and security stability available in western and northern Africa

-good leadership like Mansa Kankan Mussa and Tunkamanin maintained peace

-availability of goods such as gold and salt.

-introduction of camels and other pack animals such as horses and donkeys.

-it’s profitability

-role of Berbers, they were trustworthy traders.

role of Tuaregs, they acted as traders guides through the Sahara desert.

presence of oasis in the desert, it provided water for traders and their animals.

presence of trade routes.

presence of trade items such as gold and salt.


-increase of slave trade, thus weaker states collapsed.

-rise of some towns such as Jenne, Walaga, Gao, Chat etc.

-introduction of camels as a means of transport

-exploitation of African resources, by Arabs and Europeans.

-decline of trade i.e. Indian trade

-accumulation of wealth to the trade dealers (it was profitable).

-spread of western civilization


-decrease of man power

-emergency of classes i.e. the rich Vs. the poor

-rise of stronger states such as Mali.

-introduction of new commodities from outside Africa eg cotton cloth.

-spread of Islam by traders.

-growth of Arabic language

Generally; Europeans and Asians also participated in this trade they waited for goods stationed in North Africa. The Berbers sold these commodities to western Sudan through Berbers. Reasons for the collapse of thus trade were the stunt of the volume of trade, availability of alternative commodities obtained from other parts of the world eg gold, scarcity of water in the desert, wars in North Africa between Christians and Moslem, chaos in Morocco, Libya, Algeria and Tunisia by Turks as they forceful ruled these states, mistrust and suspicious amonhy Berbers, Arabs and Africans, epidemic of plague, industrial revolution in Europe, colonization and aftermath of colonization.

Who benefited from triangular slave trade and how (NECTA 1986) OR 4. What was Atlantic triangular slave trade and what is the major social and economic effects to west Africa(NECTA 1985) OR 5. What were the effects of triangular slave trade in west Africa (NECTA 1994) OR 6. .Explain the consequence of development of triangular slave trade on Africa (1997)


Contacts between Europe and Africa cemented in the 15th centy. Europeans were not interested much in Trans Saharan trade. By 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks and the source of slaves from this parts was cut off.

Originally in 15th and onset of 16th centuries slaves who were taken from Senegal and Gambia were shipped to the fas and plantations of Southern Spain and Portugal. Triangular slave trade was the trade which involve three continent which are Africa,

America and Europe.it involve the exchange of goods like slaves, golds, diamond animal skin from Africa, tobacco, sugar, and other raw materials from America, manufactured goods from Europe.


EUROPE, benefitted from the triangular slave trade in the following ways:- -market to sell her goods

-area for investment

-Area to  settle surplus population

-got area for sources of raw materials

-area for cheap labor

-Europe got wealthy and development

– Increase of production for European powers.

-The profit obtained financed the Industrial Revolution in Britain.


-depopulation, due to removal of man power and deaths of people.

-increase of slave trade

-exploitation of African resources eg minerals

-decline of trans-Saharan trade

-rise of some states esp. Coastal city states eg Port Novo -decline of some states like those of forest states.

-insecurity and lonely

-Separation of families

-decline of African economy eg agriculture due to extraction of abled people. -spread of western culture -famine and hunger.

-introduction of new commodities to Africa from Europe, eg cheap him, cotton clothes, beads, domestic utensils, outdated firearms, cheap gun powder and other assorted rubbish.

-introduction of black people in the new world (America).

-Construction of means of transport eg harbours

– Technological retardation. This was because the majority of the population as not permitted to engage in technological advancements.

– Destruction of Africans’ traditional industry. is goods brought from Europe flooded in African markets, although they were no way superior than those produced in Africa, Africans could not compete with the new goods from Europe.

-Destruction of African culture.

– Widespread of diseases such as syphilis. It was contracted by Spanish from the natives of the New World, soon spread to the Africans through the slaving agents on the coast who usually had black concubines.

-Spread of Christianity in west Africa.

-Africa was opened to the outside world.

7. Explain the aim and results of the Portuguese invasion of east Africa in the 16th century and 17th century (NECTA 1995) OR 8. Examine the impacts of the Portuguese intrusion in east Africa in the 16th century (NECTA 2007)


The Portuguese were the people from Portugal Spain. They came in East Africa in 1490’s due to:-

-trading activities especially gold

-spread Christianity and encounter Muslim influence.

-commercial exploration

-exploitation of African resources

-love for adventure

-to find the route to India

-maritime technology

-Monsoon winds and compass direction.

-to search pastor John (a believed legendary Christian ruler in Ethiopia).


-Decline of trade ie.trans-saharan trade

-spread of Christianity with little success

-increase of slave trade

-change of trade pattern/route

– exploitation of African resources

-spread of new culture ie western culture

-increase of whites in Africa


-introduction of new commodities

-introduction of new crops eg pawpaws, pineapples, oranges.

-fall of coastal city states like Kilwa and Mombasa.

-Building of fort Jesus which currently is used as a tourist attraction

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Linguistics As A Source Of Historical Information Advantages And Disadvantages Written Records Advantages And Disadvantages Of Archives Importance Of Studying History. History Form Three Topical Examinations Level Of Development Between Africa And Europe The Brandt Report History Notes For Ordinary Level

8. Account for the rapid expansion of slave trade in east Africa during the 19th century (NECTA 2005)


-Opening of clove plantation in Zanzibar by sultan Seyyid Said

-opening of sugar plantation in Mauritius and islands of Reunion by French -profitability of the trade

– involvement of local rulers in the trade

-trade contacts with Asia

-involvement of Portuguese in slave trade -Development of maritime technology.

-failure of other sources of labour.

-Profitability of the trade.

9. Discuss the impact of the Dutch settlement at the cape by giving six points (nectar 2016)


-land alienation

-introduction of slavery

-cattle confistication

-introduction of apartheid

-intermarriage that resulted to mullato

-destruction of indigenous culture -development of new language ie Afrikaan -introduction of Boer republics.

-Spread of Christianity.

-Several clashes with Africans such as Khoi and Xhosa led to depopulation.

-Introduction of diseases eg small pox.

-Introduction of new commodities from Europe.

-South Africans lost their political freedom from 1652 to 1994.


-Good climatic condition

-good fertile soil -presence of fresh water -good trade center.

-Presence of natural harbours.

10. hat were the causes of the great trek in south Africa (NECTA 1989) OR 2. Elaborate six reasons which made the bours to escape the southern cape 1830 and 1850 (NECTA 2014) OR

11. What were the causes of the great trek in South Africa (NECTA 1993) OR

12. Discuss the causes of bour trek and its consequent on the people of South Africa (NECTA 1997) OR 5. Identify the causes and effects of the bour trek between 1820 and 1850 (NECTA 1988) OR

13. The great exodus of South African farmers in 19th century has its causes and effects to the societies passed. Comment.


Great trek/Bour trek (Boer exodus) refers to the movement of Boers from the cape of South Africa to the interior escaping the British control. It took place from 1830’s to 1850’s across the Vaal River. The Boers who trekked away were known as Voortrekkers or Boer trekkers


-Introduction of English language by British -population increase (coming of British settlers).

-the rise of shaka Zulu

-whites interest in the cape of south Africa

-abolition of slave trade by British

-the 50th laws which gave equal rights to both Boers and Africans (introduction of black circuit court).


-Abolition of trade restrictions

-Introduction of new laws (new court system to replace old Boer systems).


-rise of new states like the Transvaal

-land alienation. The Boers used very brutla and treachery to rob the African fertile land and cattle. -fall of some states; which were settled by Africans as they were taken by Boers eg Orange free state which was settled by Tswan-Sotho communities.

-slave trade was abolished

-spread of new culture; ie European culture into Africans and the development of Afrikaner language.

-Depopulation as Boers encountered frequent attacks with Africans on their movement. – Introduction of apartheid; it aimed at preserving Boer’s material interests. At the same time, Boers regarded British as imperialists threatening their cultural and economic interests.

13. Why did Europeans take measures to abolish slave trade in the 19th c. (NECTA 1999)


14. What were the notable effects of abolition of slave trade (NECTA 2000)


The British industrial revolution of  1750’s, slave labour became redundant. Industries shifted European priority from slaves to demands of raw materials, needs of markets.

-American independence of 1776

-sugar  competition  between British and French.

-the French revolution of 1789

-the role of philosophers i.e. Daniel Defoe & Samuel Johnson

-role of economists eg Adam Smith

-capitalist production system which demanded free movement of labour (Development of capitalism).

-Constant slave revolts. Some run away and established independent republics eg Palmares. Another example was the Maroons who escaped in Jamaica and went into highlands where they set up their own independent farming community controlled by them, another uprising was located in French governed Island of modern Haiti, the slaves under Toussaint Louverture resisted and assassinated their French master in 1971.

-Competition between industrial barons and sugar barons. Absentee landlords in West Indies, lived in Britain and lobbied the Parliament. Industrial barons who dominated political scene of Britain opposed slave trade as machines replaced human labour.

-humanitarian reasons


-rise of legitimate trade

-rise of European trading companies

-spread of western culture

-spread of Christianity

-increase of whites population in Africa.

-rise of new states for setting ex-slaves i.e. sierra Leone and Liberia

-fall of states like Benin, Oyo and Dahomey

-colonization of Africa


-deployment of naval patrol in both Atlantic & Indian ocean trade

-enactment of laws which prohibit slavery and slave trade i.e. 1807-1833 by British parliament

-signing of treaties such as Moresby treaty(1822),Harmaton treaty(1845) and Frere Treaty (1875)


-Britain faced opposition from other European powers like French

-opposition from local chiefs who involved in trade e.g. Mirambo,Kabaka

-tropical diseases such as Malaria and typhoid

-few knowledge about African geography by British

-few patrol ships by British

-lack of fund and man power

-religious attitude i.e. opposition from Muslims

-profitability of the trade change the attitude of abolitionist.

opposition from African societies which slavery was their custom. In such societies slaves

themselves opposed abolition of slave trade.

-long strip of the east African coast.

-few manpower

8. Show how legitimate trade rose and what were its effects to the people of Africa?


*It emerged after abolition of slave trade. It was the “fair” trade between Africa and Europe. Its major items of trade were crops and minerals such as palm oil, peanuts, cocoa, vegetables and gold.

Aims of establishing slave trade:

-Completely replace slave activities.

-Enhance production of raw materials to feed manufacturing industries in Europe.

  • Establishment of strong markets in Africa for European manufactured goods.
  • Compensate slave traders.

-Provide work for freed slaves ie enslaves them on production of raw materials.


Restore dignity of humans (slaves).

Introduction of colonialism. Frequently European trades and missionaries requested their mother countries to interfere and protect them especially in productive areas and eliminate African middle men who became a stumbling block to their activities. For example, the German incorporated parts of Cameroon and Togo partly because of traders who were requiring protection, also the British colonized Ghana under the guise of mediating Fante-Asante confrontation exercised the similar gesture.

Classes of people in Africa. Middle class of private traders and class of employed traders in firms from Europe eg Britain.

Increase of rivalries among European nations eg Britain and France in controlling in West Africa. -Urbanization eg Onitsha and Lokoja towns grew as trading ports to accommodate legitimate traders.

Establishment of European companies to operate with European interests eg Royal Niger Company from Britain. It was a British company which joined all British small firms to compete African tradition firms.

Monetization in West Africa, banking and credit facilitation yo replace the tradition barter system.

Development of infrastructures such as roads, railways and cannoes eg railway from Lagos to Kano in 1911, in Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast) from Accra to Sekondi. These were non public roads.

Introduction of western culture in West Africa ie Westernization.

Introduction of new cash crops eg coffee and cotton to supplement traditional kolanuts and palm oil.

Tied west African economies yo those of Europeans permanently by determining prices of West African crops and determine type of manufactured goods to be transported to Africa. This has led to new colonialism (depndance).

Africa was introduced in the capitalist economic system.

Establishment of trading ports and stations in the inlands that acted as commanding centers for draining African resources. Such stations included Dar-es-salaam, Nairobi, Ndola (Zambia), Onitsha and Lakoja in West Africa.

Development of crop economy, plantation agriculture, settler economy and the mining of mineral deposits rapidly. Thus commercialized farming which doubled the volume of exports. eg palm oil plantations in Nigeria, groundnuts in Gambia,  gold mining in Ghana and iron ore in Liberia in West Africa.

Topic 4: Industrial Capitalism



1. The explorers, missionaries, traders and chartered companies were tools of capitalism and imperialism during the second half of 19th century. Explain this statement using examples EITHER from central Africa OR west Africa.(NECTA 1985) OR

2. .Explain the part played by the missionaries in the colonization of Uganda by British (NECTA 1994) OR 3. .Through their activities the missionaries became forerunners of colonialism. Justify this statement.(NECTA 2007)


3. “Missionaries prepared Africa for European colonization.” Discuss (NECTA 2016)


4. Discuss six contributions of agents of colonialism to the colonization of Africa


5. Through their activities the missionaries became forerunners of colonialism. Justfy this statement. (NECTA 2007)



Several European companies operated in Africa such as IBEAC under William Macknon founded in 1886, GEAC founded by Carl Peters in 1884, RNC founded by 1884 by George Tubman Goldie, BSAC founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1880’s and Internationale Due Congo (International African Association) founded by king Leopold II of Belgium.

Functions of agents of colonialism;

To make African humble to accept colonialism

Explore Africa countries and sent back information to the mother countries -they acted as chief advisers to African chiefs

Some agents declare the colonial master to come and rule Africans eg.Henry Johnstone in Uganda

They signed treaties with African chiefs

They appeared for their home government for protection.

Participated in abolition of slave trade.

They set up a security system to ensure the observance of law and order in African territories.

7. With examples from East or West Africa, show how company rule helped to create European colonization in Africa.(NECTA 2010, 2012)


-they administer colonies on behalf of colonial master

-they opened trade companies to prepare Africa market

-they traded with Africans

-signing of treaties with Africans chiefs

-they explored Africans and its resources and sent back information.

-They constructed infrastructures and administrative offices, which were later used by colonialists.

-They set up laws and order to maintain peace and stability.

8. Tactics used to occupy the cape By British Government

Introduction of land legislation system; They aimed at discouraging pastoralism among Boers and to encourage sedentary farming since the policy limited the size of an individual’s land. The Dutch thought that the British introduced the land law to take land from the Boers and redistribute it to the landless Khoikhoi so they opposed the land law.

Abolition of slave trade and slavery in 1807; The British government abolished slave trade in all their colonies and offered compensation for slaves but the money was only paid in London as a result the majority did not get their compensation. However, freeing slaves endangered the economic survival of the Boers as they depended much on slave labor.

Imposition of the English language as the as the language of administering the law and justice and the medium of instruction in schools in 1822. Hence English language replaced the Dutch as he official language.

Abolition of internal trade restriction imposed by the Dutch company officials on the farmers and other settlers at the cape. This created more trade opportunities as they could now trade freely without strictly control from the administration.

Introduction of the pass in 1809 to reduce the exploitation of African labor as the system required African workers to carry passbooks which indicated their residence and employment, and those who did not carry them were regarded as criminals. The pass prevented the Africans from moving from district to district or moving into areas occupied by Europeans.

Introduction of contract system; through this the Boers were to sign contracts with their workers. In those contracts they were to mention the wages and other fringe benefits that they gave to their workers. Therefore, the Boers regarded the contract system as British interference in the traditional Boer-Africans relationship of master-servant.

Introduction of the Black circuit court system in 1811 in order to reduce acts of violence committed by European employers against African employees. The law angered the Boers who considered themselves a superior race and thus natural masters of the Africans.

Introduction of English law as the basis of the legal system in South Africa.

Provision of financial aid to the British settlers by the British government, this encouraged more of its citizens to immigrate to the Cape as a result in 1820 some 300 British settlers arrived in South Africa increasing the total white population by almost 12% within weeks.


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