Topic 1 : Introduction to Agricultural Science | Agriculture Form One

Topic 1 : Introduction to Agricultural Science | Agriculture Form One

Topic 1 : Introduction to Agricultural Science | Agriculture Form One

INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE SCIENCE

Agriculture Form One: Introduction to Agricultural Science – Topic 1 | Agriculture notes | Notes za Agriculture Form One | Definition of agriculture- Is the science and art of cultivating crops and raising livestock to produce food and goods for human beings.

The word art is used referring to the skill of the farmer in cultivating crops and raising livestock.

The word science is defined as knowledge of nature. Farmers use the knowledge gained by scientists to grow their crops and livestock.

IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE IN THE SOCIETY

1. Used in food processing

2. Used in crop production

3. Used in making pesticides

4. Used in making fertilizer

5. Help in producing new breeds of animals

6. Used in food preservation.

7. Help to know what endanger animal and crops

THE SCOPE AND INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURE WITH ARTS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS

1. Biology

Involves breeding of crops and livestock.

2. Geography

Involves crop and animal distribution soil and water conservation.

3. Mathematics

Involve production economics and research, farm survey, mechanization finance and soil science.

4. Chemistry and physics

Biochemistry, Animals and crop science and protection soil chemistry, farm mechanization

5. Zoology

Animal production science veterinary medicine.

6. Sociology

Agricultural extension and education.

7. Economics

Finance and marketing.

HOW FARMING BEGAN

In Prehistoric times, people liked by collecting fruits, seeds, leaves and roots of trees they come across in the bushes and forests, and by hunting wild animals. Men started as food gathers and hunters. They lived in very small combinations and the population was so small that there was no difficulty in obtaining enough foods.

The first big discovery was the cultivation of land by scratching the ground with wooden sticks and growing some wild edible plants.

After undergoing many generations of selection and breeding, this gave rise to the cereal crop varieties we grow at present. Various types of wild animals and birds were caught and tames, later to become domestics animals. Due to these developments some form of settled agriculture started, but the use of poor tools remained a common feature.

The arrival of Europeans in East Africa Market a further Improvement in farming methods. Cash crops and exotic breeds of livestock were introduced the cash crops being mainly intended to provide raw materials for industries such as the textile industry in Lancashire back in England.

The revenue from the cash crops helped the colonies to pay for their administrative costs, thus reducing dependence on the colonizers. However more attention was paid to the European that to the African farmers.

BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCE

The subject material of agriculture entails much subdivision namely:-

1. Crop husbandry

This is also known as crop science, it deals with botany and examines plant life cycles, weeds, rests and diseases and their control, plant breeding and genetics.

2. Animal husbandry

This is animal science that deals with the rearing of all types of livestock e.g. cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, pigs and rabbits. It also involves all factors that influence the production performance of livestock so as to obtain high yield of animal’s products of goods quality both for human consumption and for industries.

3. Soil Science

Involves the study of soil in general, how it works, how the soil is formed, how it works to sustain life and how it can be kept alive through many years of use.

4. Agricultural machinery

Deals with tools and machinery used in farming activities, modern farming require the of tools and machinery so as to enable farmers to save time and cope with large amount of work while stepping up the yield. Farm modernization cannot be achieved without using machines.

5. Agriculture Economics

This branch of agriculture provides information on basic economic principles, gross domestic product and income per capital in relation to agriculture development and the day to day activities.

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

Importance of agriculture to the farmers

1. Agriculture provides foods

The food may be obtained from growing crops in the garden or from animal’s sources, where we get meat, milks and milk products, egg and blood. It’s the duty of every nation to feed its people because a well fed nation is a health one.

2. Agriculture provides employment

Workers in ranches, coffee, tea and sisal estate and small holders’ farmers are all employed through agriculture sector.

3. Clothing

Agriculture generates materials from which clothing is made. Fibre from cotton and other crops is processed in a textile industry to produce cloth. Woolen clothing and leather materials like shoes, belts, jackets and handbags are obtained from animals.

4. Money

Crops, animals and animal products are sold for cash

5. Consumer goods

The manufactured products which farmers use for domestic purpose such as sugar, soap, cooking oil and others are all processed from raw materials obtained from the agriculture sector.

6. Shelter

The agriculture sector generates the materials which farmers use to put up their houses. Shelter is one of the basic requirements of man.

Agriculture provides raw materials for industries most agriculture products require some.

7. Labor

Some animals such as oxen, donkey and camels are used on farms for ploughing and providing simple transport.

8. Fuel

Crop residues are used as firewood or charcoal.

9. Social, Cultural, Traditional value

Payment of dowry and fulfillment of traditional ceremonies and rituals must be done in material form by presenting one or more of these animals as the custom demands.

SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURES USED IN AGRICULTURE SCIENCE

Scientific process

Agriculture science subject needs scientific methods of research and investigation. One can study living things either by field observation (outdoors) or laboratory experimentation (indoors).

Scientific process is activities that deal with experimentation in chosen phenomena in science and finding a solution to a problem.

Importance of scientific procedure

1. To determine plants and animal requirements

2. To determine pest and disease which affect plant and animals

3. To develop suitable new plants varieties and animal breeds.

Procedural method

1. Problem identification

Is the first step where problem is recognized

2. Formulation of Hypothesis

Hypothesis – is an intelligent guess, a tentative theory or tentative explanation and hypothesis formulation

3. Experimentation

An experiment is a series of investigations intended to discover certain facts. This may lead to the acceptance, modification or sometimes rejection of a hypothesis

4. Observation and Data Recording

After setting up an experiment, a researcher makes careful observations and records all events that he considers important.

5. Interpretation of Data

Once a researcher has collected data he / she should try to explain what the data means in relation to the purpose of the experiment.

6. Conclusion

A research must draw conclusions at the end of the investigations based upon collected data. The conclusion is either a confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis under investigation. When a hypothesis is rejected another one is formulated and tested.

Agriculture Form One: Introduction to Agricultural Science - Topic 1

AGRICULTURE SCIENCE LABORATORY

Meaning of the concept:

The word laboratory originated from a Latin word laborer which means labour (work hard) this suggests that the laboratory is a place meant for serious hard work and not for jokes.

Definition

It is a room or a building specially designed for Agriculture experiments and also where specimens and apparatus are kept.

Characteristics of a good laboratory
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1. Supply of gas

2. Electricity and water

3. Large windows to allow enough light and air

The laboratory is meant to be a quiet and safe place to work in. It can be a dangerous place if safety regulations are not adhered to.

Importance of Agriculture Lab

1. The laboratory can be used for soil analysis

2. The laboratory can be used to conduct experiments for examine plants and animals requirement

3. It used for examining different plants and animal rest and diseases

4. Can be used to store different Agriculture science chemicals, fertilizer, seeds and apparatus for future use.

5. Can be used to develop new crop varieties and animal breeds.

Safety in Agriculture laboratory

When an experiment is being done, it should never be assumed to be completely harmless. All chemicals and apparatus should be handled with great care. For instance, if a glass apparatus is handled carelessly, it might break and injure the user.

Safety laboratory rules

Students should never handle any chemicals specimens and apparatus in the laboratory without instructions from the teacher. Students using any chemical must adhere to the teacher’s instructions, very carefully to avoid accidents.

Any accident involving chemicals or apparatus in the laboratory must be reported to the teacher in charge immediately so that first aid can be administered.

Put off flames which are most in used.

When heating a substance, never point the open end of the tube towards yourself or anyone else. Always hold tubes using test-tube holders when heating.

Always keep inflammable substances away from flames. Don’t play or run in the laboratory

If need be wear lab coat, gloves, goggles when carrying out an experiment or practical’s.

ALWAYS work on a clean bench. After completing your experiments. Clean all pieces of apparatus and specimens one has used return them to their correct places.

TYPES OF APPARATUS USED IN AGRICULTURE LABORATORY

  • Beaker
  • Brush
  • Glass wool
  • Bucket
  • Beam balance
  • Measuring cylinder
  • Test tube
  • Thermometers

FIRST AID

FIRST AID AND SAFETY

Definition

Is the immediate and temporary care of help one is given when injured or ill before being taken to the hospital or before the doctor comes

Importance of first Aid

1. Saves life

2. Bring hope & encouragement

3. Prevent further heading or injuries

4. Helps the patients to recover from shock

5. Removes fear of death

6. Reduce pain

Component of the first Aid Kit Importance of first AID
  • A pair of scissors
  • Rolls of adhesive tape
  • Assorted bandages
  • Cotton wool sterilized
  • New razor blade sterilized
  • Jar of petroleum jelly
  • Gentian violet solution
  • Soap
  • Antibiotic solution
  • Pain killers: e.g. panadol
  • Methylated spirit
  • Clean water

THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO NATIONAL ECONOMY

1. Food supply

All the people require food; it’s the agricultural sector that meets this basic need. A starring nation is a poor one; threatened by Malnutrition, disease and death. A country’s economy is strong when its people are well fed, enjoy good health and are able to steer their nation through progress and prosperity.

2. Supply of raw materials for industries

Raw materials mean that the materials have come from the crops or livestock without being altered or treated.

Examples agricultural raw materials

  • Sisal for bag industries
  • Groundnuts and sunflower for oil Industries
  • Leather goods – leather industries
  • Cotton – Textile industries

3. Agriculture creates employment

In East Africa, over 80% of the able-bodied men and women are engaged in Agriculture.

  • Agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides), machinery, certified planting materials.
  • Marketing of Agriculture products
  • Agriculture extension & education
  • Unskilled and semi-skilled are employed to cultivate, weed and harvesting plantation crops such as sisal, coffee, tea and pyrethrum.

4. Earning Foreign exchange

East Africa countries export (sell to other countries) things like coffee, tea, cotton, fruits and vegetable.

5. Source of market

It provides a market for the industrial products.

e.g. jembes, fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, animal feeds and veterinary drugs needed by the farmers as inputs in farming.

6. Source of capital

High agricultural produce generates wealth at home and also accumulates savings in the form of foreign reserves.

Improves the standard of living of the people because it gives them good health, shelter, clothing and more wealth.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANZANIA

Basic facts of Agricultural development in Tanzania

1. Suitable land for crop production and animal keeping

Tanzania has large suitable land for Agriculture but only small part has been put into use

2. More than 80% of the population is living in rural area where farming is the major activity

3. Agriculture in Tanzania is based on small scale farming owned by poor peasant while large scale is owned by private companies or governments.

4. Peasant farming produces little for family use as well as cash crops.

5. Agricultural development is a Major source of economy and social development in Tanzania

SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEM FACING AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA

1. Poor crop and animal husbandry.

Due to low level of education farmers fail to practice recommended practices e.g. properly timely fertilize. Use etc. hence ending up with low-harvest.

2. Poor marketing system

Poor transport structure from the field to store as well as from store to market causing spoilage and destruction.

3. Psychological and sociological factor i.e.

Perception that farming is for old, poor and less educated people and a white collar job is for young, educated class.

Religious beliefs hinder rising of some animals or crops e.g. pig production, tobacco production.

4. Poor farming tools:

Use of traditional hand tools is prominent in most area; thus lowering production.

5. Pest and diseases:

Capital (Money) is needed in purchasing chemical treatment which most farmers cannot afford.

6. Price fluctuation:

Due to change of supply and demand of farm products time to time, may discourage farmers to produce a certain commodity.

7. Poor storage

Poor storage facilities in rural farming community may cause spoilage of harvests by pest, weather for at least 20%.

8. Climatic factor

Unreliable and insufficient rainfall per annul have a great effect in farming operations e.g. drying of crops, less pasture for animal, heavy outbreak of pests etc.

Steps to improve agricultural production

Topic 1 : Introduction to Agricultural Science | Agriculture Form One

1. Farmer’s education

Through improvement of extension services to convey proper skills to farmers

2. Research Centers

It’s important for development of proper animal breeds and crop varieties suitable t o varies areas and made available to farmers.

3. Improvement of transport system

Through establish and construction of good road and railways in order easy movement of raw material from the field to the market.

4. Improvements of laws tenure system

By establishing land title dead as incentives to farmers so that they can secure loans and do large investments.

5. Provision of storage facilities

To facilitate agriculture products to be store for a reasonable period for future use.

The Writer