Home AGRICULTURE Topic 3: Introduction to Livestock Production | Agriculture Form One

Topic 3: Introduction to Livestock Production | Agriculture Form One

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Introduction to Livestock Production

Topic 3: Introduction to Livestock Production | Agriculture Form One

Introduction to Livestock Science and Production | Topic 3 | Agriculture Notes Form One | Notes Za Agriculture Form One | LIVESTOCK: This is the term representing all domestic animals and birds of economic importance. These include cattle, poultry, pigs, sheep, and goats | Agriculture Form One

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Is the art and science of keeping livestock.

CLASSES OF LIVESTOCK KEPT IN TANZANIA AND USES

1. Cattle; for the supply of milk, meat, and skin (hide).

-Milk cattle are known as dairy cattle.

-Meat cattle are known as beef cattle.

-Cattle producing both milk and meat are called Dual purpose cattle.

-Those cattle used as drought animal are called oxen.

2. Poultry; for the supply of eggs and meat.

-Poultry for eggs are called layers.

-Poultry for meat are called broilers.

-Those suitable for both are called Dual Purpose poultry.

3. Pigs; for the supply of meat and fat.

4. Sheep; for the supply of wool and meat (mutton).

5. Goats; specifically kept for meat and milk.

CATEGORIES OF LIVESTOCK

1. Indigenous/local.

2. Exotic type.

General characteristics of local and exotic type of livestock

(i) LOCAL TYPE.

1. Mature live weight is small.

2. Found mostly in Tropical Temperature lying between (150– 300C).

3. Highly heat tolerant.

4. Low yield of meat, eggs, wool, etc.

5. Disease tolerant.

6. Low pasture nutritive value: Most of the tropical grass grows very fast during wet season, thus

7. Construct very low nutritive content compared to temperate are. This in town cause poor animal health due to poor nutritive value resetting to poor yield.

8. Presence of harmful organism, parasites, vectors: High temperatures with low relative humidity experience in Tanzania: saves as a good breeding / reproduction for this the productivity.

SOCIAL ECONOMIC FACTOR

1. Traditional among livestock keepers.  Poor livestock husband as experienced through

Use of traditional methods by different livestock keepers. egg. Keeping for prestige time the social needs etc: thus causing over storing of animals without considering availability of pas the animals, resulting to low yields.

2. Lack of specialization: production with specialization is high effect and economical – e.g. cattle- For meet only for meat only (beef). This is because, there will be letter management resulting to letter performance.

3. Lack of capital entail capital in livestock production investment is quite high for purchasing of tolls equipment

  • purchase of good breeds
  • Purchase of drugs
  • Construction of water supply dams housing
  • Purchase of improved pasture seeds e.t.c.

Hence enough capital is needed lack of which may cause poor production.

4. Poor technology: Proper feeding, breaching and disease and pest control require proper skills of high most keepers do not have.

5. Institutional factor: this include the following:-

  • Inadequate support services: This involves poor extension service.
  • Inadequate technical and research centers for livestock production in Tanzania.

Shortage of suitable livestock breeds, feeds, veterinary drugs and other inputs.

HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS

1. Provision of credit facilities: So as to encourage livestock keeping and through loan provision.

2. Improve extension services and veterinarians to convey livestock technology from research centers.

3. Improving livestock input supply e.g. feeds, pasture sees drugs etc.

4. Social and traditional taboos discouraging development of livestock production should be discouraged.

LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEMS

Meaning is there are systems used to raise livestock types.

1. Free range

2. Intensive

3. Semi Intensive.

1: Free range

This is as system whereby animals are left to find their feed weather freely in the day and are locked in a house in the night sometimes called extensive system

It is commonly used in poultry farming and sometime goats and sheep.

Characteristic features

Stock number is very low compared to the large area of land used.

The animals not receive little or extra feed eating only insects grass and other feed available. Little disease prevention animal growth.

Advantage

i. Low initial capital to start with.

ii. no feed costs ass animals feed in their own

iii. Cheap or small house can be used to shelter the animals

iv. Animals get a lot of exercises as they move extensively.

Disadvantage.

i. Large space is needed to allow animals to loiter and find food

ii. May cause damage to people’s properties e.g. crops while in see for food.

iii. Low safety to animals as they can be stolen, eaten by predation or knocked by passing cars or bicycles.

iv. High exposure to adverse weather e.g. coldness rain a well as exposure to parasites, vectors and diseases.

v. It is difficult to collect – eggs

vi. Lives weight of the animals is very low due to too much walking.

2: Intensive

This is a system whereby animals are confined in well controlled environment e.g. house or fence and feeding is done inside.

Advantages

1. Large number of animals is kept on a small area of land.

2. Provide safety to animals as they are enclosed within a how is fence.

3. Easy provision of extra feed

4. Animals receive great attention on disease/ peck control

5. Protection against weather

6. Possible to have records of each animal so as to facilitate breeding.

7. Easy to collect.

Characteristics

1. A Large number of animals are kept in a small area of land

2. Animals are kept in the fence or house.

3. Extra feed is provided.

Disadvantages

High skill is needed to operate the system e.g. disease control. and housing requirement.

High initial capital is needed for construction of houses dope water sources e.t.c High feed cost.

3: Semi Intensive

Is sputum whereby animals are partially confined during the night and during the day they are released for feeding within a fence.

Features /Characteristics.

A house constructed at the centre of a fence. Presence of paddocks where animals feed Water troughs are found within the feeding areas.

Advantages

Simple and cheap house can be constructed live reduction of feed costs as animals can be left to grain fetid of the forced house. Animals can be attended.

Disadvantages

Number of animals is limited due to constriction cost of houses and paddocks.

PRINCIPLES OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Involve the following

  • Breed selection
  • Feeding
  • Housing
  • Pests parasites / Disease control
  • Stock man

1. Breed selection

Meaning: This is a process of choosing particular animals from assorted collection of animals. As parent of future generation.

  • Traits which are observed include
  • Best milk producers
  • Best meat produces.

Method of selection

  • selection basing on physical appearance
  • selection basing on animal records n individual performing
  • selection index basing economic importance of each trait, heredity

Importance of Breed selection

  • Facilitate selection of animals of better quality and quality products e.g. wool, Milk and meat.
  • Facilitate selection of disease resistant animals.
  • Facilitate selection of disease resistant to subjected climate e.g. jersey can resist tropical climate while Frisian common pawpaw Breed suited to semi aid areas of.
  • Resistance to high ambient temperatures and today conditions.

Selection time

After full maturity of animals, as the physical characteristics can easily be seen.

2. Feeding

This refers to the supply of food of balanced duet to animals of different classes, and at different ages.

Suitable feeding periods

The suitable time for feeding animals depends mostly on body requirement such as:

  • Body maintenance
  • Growth stage
  • Reproductive stage
  • Production stage – e.g. Milk, eggs, meat , fats or wool
Types of feeds suitable for different classes of animals.

Concentrates: there are feed types which have moisture content bull with high mutative. e.g. protein concentrates – cotton, sunflower, groundnuts cakes, fish meats.

Energy concentrates – cereal grains and their production e.g. maize bran, rice bran etc

Concentrates are the main source of food for non- ruminant animal’s e.g. Pigs and poultry, while other animals are given as supplementary.

Roughage: These are high fiber content feeds e.g. pastures grass, straw and hay.

Hay is one form of roughage which is a major food stuff for ruminant animals e.g. cattle, goat, sheep etc, because they have special bacteria which break the cellulose.

Try roughage are-hays (e.g. legume and grass), Trans (wheat, barley, orts) food ad stoker

IMPORTANCE OF PROPER ANIMAL FEEDING

1. To facilitate fast growing

2. To facilitate good animal health so as to provide disease resistivity

3. Facilitate increase of animal fertility and production

4. Optimize production level of animal products e.g. wool, eggs etc

3: Housing

This is the provision of shelter to farm and so as to protect animals from

i. Bad weather e.g. cold, rain or sun

ii. Predators e.g. snakes etc

iii. Thieves

iv. Insect pests e.g. Tsetse flies, ticks etc

The building should have a slight slope to facilitate water draining; as well as provision of concrete floor suitable roofing material should be used to prevent animals from rain and sunshine.

If possible in a cattle house, bedding materials e.g. grass straws should be provided and changed regularly. Poultry house can also be provided with bedding’s.

The building should be well ventilated to provide with bedding

The building should be well ventilated to provide goods aeration

Feeding and water drinking facilities should be provided in a good number to reduce sightings.

4: Diseases & Parasites

Healthy: This is a normal, effective and proper functioning of the body parts of an animal.

Parasites

These are organisms which derive all its nourishment from another organism (Host) while the host does not benefit from the association e.g. worms, ticks microorganisms etc.

Host

This is the organism which gives support or living hood to the parasite and then suffers the disease

Control of animal Diseases

This can be done either

Directly

This involves provision of cure when the disease has already established this is done by treating the animals with drug

Indirectly

Prevention and control of animal diseases

People who own or keep animals are responsible for their care and health. The Government has set a number of rules to monitor the health of kept animals. These rules largely concern the prevention, monitoring and control of animal diseases.

The Government has also set specific rules for a number of animal diseases, for example because of their potential social and economic impact or because they pose a threat to human health.

Prevention of animal diseases

1. To prevent the introduction and dissemination of animal diseases as far as possible, owners of animals must (among other things):

2. Do their best to keep animal diseases out of their business;

3. Ensure adequate hygiene;

4. Be alert to symptoms of disease;

5. Comply with requirements when importing animals from other countries;

6. Notify a vet of any suspected animal disease.

7. When there is an increased risk of infectious animal diseases entering the country, more stringent supervision of animal transports is applied. These measures can be at farm or national level (e.g. a ban on imports from infected countries).

Travelers

There are some holiday destinations where infectious animal diseases, such as foot and mouth or bird flu, are prevalent. The Government therefore advises travelers to be careful about contact with animals abroad.

Pathogens from these animals can be accidentally introduced into the Netherlands with travelers and their luggage.

Notifiable animal diseases

Stricter rules apply to certain animal diseases in terms of reporting, identification and control. When such diseases are notified the Ministry of livestock can announce additional control measures. The reasons for requiring notification of such animal diseases are as follows: They can spread quickly;

They can cause serious damage to the species in question;

They cannot be prevented or controlled by normal commercial methods; They present a serious threat to public health.

Animal diseases can also be designated as notifiable under international conventions.

Reporting animal diseases

If an animal shows symptoms of a notifiable animal disease, the owner, vet or laboratory must notify the authorities by telephoning the national desk for animal diseases:

Highly infectious animal diseases

The State is required to combat certain notifiable animal diseases. That means that the Government must always take measures to counter the spread of such diseases.. These animal diseases are treated in accordance. Which are elaborated in the national policy scenarios of the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The approach is regulated in various scenarios.

Other preventive and curative measures of livestock diseases

Isolation; Is the separation of diseased animals from fro the health ones from infectious diseases

Quarantine; Are measures aimed at preventing movement of animals in or out of infected areas. Usually the police are informed.

Destruction of disease vectors e.g. Tick, tsetse fly by destroying their breeding areas, chemical spraying, and bush clearing.

Prophylactic measures; this is a drug control measures practiced on routine drenching at a 4 week interval.

Slaughtering; in case of high infectious disease such as FMD, slaughtering is done. Vaccination; Is an artificial way of giving immune to a particular disease, it involves injecting animals with preventive drugs

Introduction To Livestock Production

5: STOCK MAN

Is one who keeps the animals.

Quality of a good stock man ship

1.. Should be kind to the animals by avoiding beating, pulling their ears and twisting their tails or torturing them.

2. Must know their daily and monthly routine operation very well e.g. when drenching, spraying, dipping, vaccination e.t.c.

3. Should be up to date of production records breeding accounts e.g. in order to find a change and act upon it.

4. Have knowledge of disease and reproduction of farm animals

Mixed farming is an agrarian system that mixes arable farming with the raising of livestock contemporaneously. When on a farm along-with crop production, some other agriculture based practice like poultry, dairy farming or bee keeping etc. is adopted, and then this system of farming is known as mixed farming.

It is the dominant system in Europe and now in parts of India, where most farms have a mixture of fields and pastures.It was first mainly used for self- consumption, but now in advanced countries like USA, Japan, etc., this is done for a commercial purpose

For example, the same farm may grow cereal crops, and keep cattle, sheep, pigs or poultry.

In mixed farming, along with farming some other agriculture based practices are also carried out. Often the dung from the cattle is used to fertilize the cereal crops. Before horses were used for haulage, many young male cattle were often not butchered as surplus for meat but castrated and used as bullocks to haul the cart and the plough.

Advantages

i.    Animal and crop benefit from each other (mutual benefit) whereby plants provide animal feed and animal provide

ii.    Balance diet from plant and animals products improve farmer health

iii.    Continuous cash flow is realized

iv.    Animal feases can be used in biogas processing for electricity production

Disadvantages

i. High labor is needed in running both projects

ii. Only cofined in areas where both animals and crops can be reared effectively.

iii. High level of technology is required in managing crops and various types of animals

iv. Inefficient production due to diversification.

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