Kingdom Plantae: Biology Practical Preparation Towards NECTA Exams (CSEE)
Kingdom Plantae: Biology Practical Preparation Towards NECTA Exams (CSEE) 2024, CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS, Biology Practical Preparation, Kingdom Plantae
General features of kingdom Plantae
1. They are multicellular ii.
2. They are eukaryotic with cellulose cell walls
3. They are autotrophs
4. They store foods as starch
5. Some reproduce sexually and others asexually
6. They show limited movement
Angles of concentration or Possible divisions (CSEE NECTA 2023)
Plants in this division include mosses and liverwort
Distinctive features of division bryophyta
1. They are generally small in size
2. They have leaf-like(thallus) and root-like(rhizoids) structures but no true leaves and roots
3. They lack vascular tissues (xylem and phloem)
4. They are commonly found in moist areas
5. They reproduce both sexually and asexually
6. They show alternation of generation
Structure of Mosses (moss plant)
This consist of a stem like structure bearing spirally arranged leaf- like extensions. They are anchored to the substratum by rhizoids. The capsule is the structure where sporangia are housed.
Life cycle of moss plant
Explain how moss plant reproduce
The reproductive parts of a moss plant are antheridium (male part) and archegonium (female part)
The antheridium releases motile sperms. The sperm swim in water to reach and fertilize the egg in the archegonia to form the zygote. The zygote develops into young sporophyte plant which grows while still attached to the archegonium.
When it matures, the sporophyte forms a capsule containing spores. When the spores are mature, the capsule burst open, and the spores are carried away by air. If they land in a suitable place, the spores germinate and produce new moss plants
Advantages of moss plants
1. Mosses help to decompose dead logs.
2. Mosses serve as pioneer plants on bare ground and help to create a suitable environment for the growth and development of other plants.
3. Mosses retain a lot of water. They therefore help to keep the soil moist.
4. When mosses grow on a piece of land, they hold the soil particles together and help to prevent soil erosion.
5. Mosses also provide shelter for insects and other small animals.
6. Some birds and mammals use mosses as nesting material.
7. Mosses are also used as cushioning material in furniture or in shipping, for example when transporting flowers.
8. Due to their good water-holding capacity, moss plants are mixed with soil to improve the soil’s moisture content.
9. Sphagnum moss has antiseptic properties. During World War I, it was widely used as a bandage for wounded soldiers.
Disadvantages of moss plants
1. Mosses occur as weeds in gardens and other places. They are very difficult to get rid of.
2. Mosses growing around ponds and other small water bodies can grow onto the water and cover it completely, causing the area to become marshy.
Division angiospermophyta It comprises plants known as flowering plants e.g. Mango tree
General characteristics of angiospermophyta
1. Angiosperms are found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments
2. They have well developed root system, stem and leaves
3. Their seeds are enclosed and protected in the ovary
4. They have well developed tissues which contain xylem and phloem
Classes of the division angiospermophyta
- Class monocotyledonae
- Class dicotyledonae
This class contains plants with seeds having two cotyledons eg. Beans, mangoes, coffee, groundnuts, sunflower plants etc.
Distinctive features of the class dicotyledonae
1. Dicot leaves have network venation
2. They stem have vascular bundles appearing in ring form
3. They have tape root system
4. Their seed embryo has two cotyledons
5. Floral parts appear in multiple of four/five
6. Dicot leaves are supported by the petioles
7. They have shorter and broader leaves
Advantages of the division Angiospermophyta
1. Angiosperms provide foods such as beans, sugarcane, cabbage etc.
2. Some species are used as medicine
3. Some provide fibres that are raw materials for textile industries. E.g. cotton
4. They prevent soil erosion
5. Make the environment attractive
Disadvantages of the division angiospermophyta
1. Some angiosperms are poisonous
2. Drugs from angiosperms may be dangerous if they are abused
3. Some angiosperms are weed plants which compete food with crops
4. Others are parasites on other plants
5. Some species can colonize water bodies and affect water bodies.