The analysis is done by looking at language features used which are either the features/levels
– Lexical features (kind of vocabulary)
– Phonological features
– Graphologist features
– Semantic features
– Syntactical features (grammar)
A. Conversational style
Is likely to have informal language
Features expected to be seen
a) Lexical features/level (vocabularies)
Characterized by Colloquial, Idioms and slang vocabularies
Colloquial vocabulary refers to the words used informally especially in everyday conversation, such words are avoided in formal writing or speaking, this is evident in casual style were people predominantly use this kind of language variety.
I told him to shove off
Use you coconut
Such words are used in spoken (conversation ans)
Conversational Style, avoids technical terms this style uses the words the words that are not technical as it is naturally inform where technical terms
are used they are meant at be humorous (funny).
b) Syntactic level (grammar)
The grammar of a conversational style is characterized by the following
Use of interjection
Words the o feelings or emotions of the people involved in the conversation
Use of attention calling devices to make the listeners get what the speaker says, he or she may use attention calling expressions such as
By the way
You know what
When the speaker thinks what to say in the act of on utterance, these expressions are used as fillers for gaps
Use of sentences beginning with coordinators are used because the sentences are said in response to what is been discussed.
E.g. But he didn’t attend the party
Or may go to Arusha
And they took everything in the shop
Use of non – sentence expression
E.g. see you there
See you later
Sorry for disturbance
Pleased to meet you
Use of simple sentences
Language of conversation is characterized by use of sentences that are simple in that they lack subordination or use them very rarely.
E.g. I will be there
We shall see
Use of short responses
In conversations were we know the context very well we may use short responses because we are aware that the speaker knows what is taking place when we are speaking.
E.g.: Yes I did (for – did you see him)
No I can’t (for- can you drive)
To Arusha (for – where did you go last week)
Short responses save time that could otherwise have been used
Use of contracted forms
Aren’t you coming today?
I’m sorry, I am not
What is wrong?
Use of question tags
E.g. A. Marry come here, didn’t she
a. Yes she did
b. You like honey, don’t you?
c. Of course I do, don’t you
d. Yes, but not that much
Lack of clarity
Some of the info may not be said since the speakers know the premise of discussion making it hard for a passerby to understand what they are saying.
Use of incomplete sentences
A – Yesterday I………………….
B – What did you?
A – I…. er….I
B- You took alcohol?
A – Not so —- er I mean ….I…….
When people meet and start talking they do not pick a topic it comes randomly
Carefully write a dialogue between two street boys arguing over a possession. Then show the evidence of a conversational style in you dialogue according to
a) Syntactical level
b) Lexical level of Analysis
Setting: street in town
Omar : You good?
Adam : Yeah
Omar : You still have the Gush, don’t you?”
Adam : … eeh ….mumm
Omar : What
Adam : No, not…. I mean, yes
Omar : No what
Adam : I had it yoh
Omar : What do you mean you had it, where is it right now?
Adam : Shit happened to me
Omar : Don’t give me crap, where is the iish
Adam : Think I lost it
Omar : Aah!!!
Adam : I swear I had it before…..er….umm
Omar : Before what (grabs Adams neck)
Adam : Lis….te…n (he coughs with pain)
Omar : Give me answers fool, that shit cost us our lives (he lets go Adams neck)
Adam : (coughs while holding his neck) i will look for it
Omar : Piss off, don’t trust you no more
Adam : Told you shit happens
Omar : Shit my foot (he leaves)
Analysis under syntactical level
-Use of interjections such as Aah! To show pain what! To show the act o surprise (omary’s reaction after Adams confection of losing the item)
-Use of hesitations such as….. eeh…. uumm
(Adam hesitates to tell the truth)
-Use of short responses such as “yeah” for – you good)
– Use of question tags such as
You still have the crush, don’t you?
-Use of incomplete sentences
Adam – I swear i had it before …er..
Omar – before what
– Lack of clarity
The dialogue does not give room for a passerby to tell what the argument is about, the topic is discussion is made a secret through not mentioning it or use of words such as cash which not many are familiar with.
Analysis under lexical level
The dialogue has involved some features that show or prove the existence of lexical features
– The use of colloquial vocabulary such as piss off
– The use of slang vocabulary such as oh in the dialogue
Such conversation can be found recorded in novels, plays short stories and journal interviews
The features found are as follows
1. The use of exclamation marks – To show emotion
A -The man is dead
B-What…..! are you sure?
2. The use of italics, bolding, capitalization and underlining to show unusual stress especially emphasis.
Phonological features of conversational style
Normally the conversational style is phonologically shown by the rise of the voice to a louder volume or higher pitch.
1.In the example below, the emphasis (loud volume words) is shown by the use of capital letters.
E.g. I wanted to go
You don’t want me to but a will
2.Some people use a pronunciation that is dialectically identified to the direct of the people in the pronunciation.
3.I humorous style some speakers imitate sounds of the people being quoted, in principal this is an informal style in that it is said that the style deals with matters which are not very serious.
1. FORMAL WRITTEN
– Is the English found in the written material such as news papers political speeches reports
– It is a language style which lacks all the features to be found in the conversational style.
2. FORMAL LITERARY STYLE
– Poems, Novels, short stories, critical essays etc
– Unlike these works, plays use the conversational style
– The language in formal literary styles involve emotion working words
– Imagery and other figurative expressions
The following extract from the rape of the pearl by Magala Nyago
Winnie had been brought up a staunch Roman Catholic her parents had been little short of fanatic. She could not recall a day when her parents had missed a Sunday mass unless they had been seriously ill. Even then, armed with a rosary, the invalid would keep on saying one after the other, the “ Hail Marry” the” our father” and “glory be to the father not less than seven times a day………………………………….
The extract about is full of figurative
“Her parents had been”
“Armed with a rosary”
“Those two were more catholic than the pope himself”
a. Lexical features of a formal literary style
– Use of symbolic words: most literary works use words that stand for things other than what they say.
– Use of emotion evoking words such words are found by the use of imagery.
Reader is affected by words that appeal to various senses such as touch, smell, taste, sight and hearing.
These senses make the reader feel like participating in the sense been described
b. Syntactic features
-Use of the simple and complex sentence done to maintain variety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentence done to maintain satiety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentences, complex are mainly descriptive because they full tell the readers about the characters as well as incidents at the setting at which such incidents took place.
|Mugo felt nervous, he was lying on his back and looking at roof locks hung from the fern and grass thatch and all pointed at his heart. A pure drop of water was delicately suspended above him. The drop fattened and grew steadier as it absorbed grains of soot. Then it started drawing toward him (from a grain of wheat by Ngugi wa Thiong’o||Use of pre and post modifies in noun phrase. Pre and post modifies are used to describe characters and the incidence which help to make work sound live. This makes the reader feel as if they were present at the places of the ancient, in that way readers understand the works.|
|-Narrations are either made of first person or second person subject of narrations either I, she or he||Extract :A terrified nurse, who happened to be|
passing by, let out a nerve shattering scream which echoed through the entire hospital (from the rape of the pearl)
THE TECHNICAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE STYLE
This is the language used by people of the same specialization such as lawyers, teachers, and doctors.
It can be referred to as a Jargon. It’s understood by specialists therefore outsiders like you and I cannot understand.
Words like photosynthesis, phyla, etc can be understood by biologist’s nouns, adverbs, morphemes by linguists.
General features of technical style;
1.Its characterized by the use of technical terms that is words that are meant to be understood by specialists of a given field.
2.The use of impersonal language i.e. most of the statements are passive (not interested with the subject but the action).
3. It sound objective e.g. Fruits are served with lunch
4. The sentences are well connected so as to show a logical flow of ideas
5. It shows headings and subheadings which make readers know which issue is included under the other.
6. Use of generalization
Uses general statements that are mainly in a simple present tense and are used as if they are principles e.g. the Archimedes principle states that when an object is partially or totally emerged in water, the water displaced has the weight equivalent to that of the object emerged.
Various examples of a technical style
This is the style that we find in natural sciences such as Biology, chemistry, physics etc
Lexical features of the scientific style
1.Makes use of words that have Latin or Greek origin e.g. diameter
2.They use S.I units for measurements which are internationally recognized e.g. 4 kg 45dm
3. Use numbers and formulas
E.g. CaCO3, CaO + CO3
4. Use abbreviations for S.I units
E.g. cm, kg
Structural features of scientific style
1. The use of passive voice
Passive voice is dominating used in order to make the information being presented sound objective aim is to make scientific findings look different from opinions, the observes distant themselves from
E.g.: “The experiment was carried out, 1st a small amount of calcium carbonate was hated. Then a colorless gas was liberated. The gas was tested using burning splint. The splint stopped burning. It was then concluded that the gas was carbon dioxide”.
In the text above, we do not know who performed the experiment because the report is given in passive voice.
2.The use of past tense in reporting experimental findings in the text above, we can see that the report is in the post tense. This is something common in most experiments.
3.The use of completed sentences
The sentences are mostly complete and clear. These sentences are normally complex with connectors that show how ideas are logically organized
4. Noun phrases are well modified for clarity reasons noun phrases are accompanied with modifiers e.g. dense white fumes where modified”
Graphological features of scientific style
1.The use of diagrams and figures as well as tables for illustrations
2.The use of symbols
The long of science is full of symbols that stand for various measurements; they include things like â„‡, ÆŸ, ∏, H2SO4
3. Well patterned paragraphs as well as headings and subheadings