Topic 4: Mechanization in agriculture | Agriculture Form One

Topic 4: Mechanization in agriculture | Agriculture Form One

Topic 4: Mechanization in agriculture | Agriculture Form One

Mechanization in agriculture | Topic 4 | Agriculture Notes Form One | Notes Za Agriculture Form One | Free Notes | Introduction: In order to do work Energy must be expended / used. The rate energy expenditure, proportional to the rate of doing work is known as power | Agriculture Form One

TYPES OF ENERGY

1. Animated

Is energy expended by using muscular power of human being and animals.

2. Unanimated

Energy expended through transformation of natural sources e.g. water, wind, solar and fossil fuel.

Meaning of the concept is the application of engineering principles and technique in agriculture activities involving utilization of all forms of energy through mechanical assistance in agriculture production.

Devices provide mechanical assistance include

1. Tools

This is a piece of equipment that have only few parts connected together e.g. slashes, hoe, discs, blades

2. Implement

A more complex than tools in that it has large number of parts connected together e.g. ploughs, disc harrows, ridges.

3. Machine

A most complex of the three as it is an assembly of connected parts which can move relatively to each other in a controlled manner e.g. mowers, harvesters and planters etc.

ADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURE MECHANIZATION

A major reason for mechanization agriculture is to increase production Ways to which production are improved by mechanization

By bringing about more intensive production through more effective and timely operations, increased speed of working and increased capacity to do hard and difficult operation such as land clearing and sub-soiling.

By putting more land into production

Based on the two ways listed above, therefore, the

Advantages of agricultural mechanization include:-

1. Relieving labour bottlenecks at peak period such as those occurring during weeding and harvesting.

2. Increasing labour productivity by doing each operation at the proper time

3. Increasing labour productivity and employment during stack periods

4. Reducing drudgery involved with hard or dirty work, such as manure spreading and clearing.

5. Encouraging human and industrial development through increased profit from mechanized agriculture

6. Possibility of reducing production costs

LIMITATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

Several factors limit the effectiveness of mechanization in agricultural production. These include:-

1. Physical factors such as mechanizing mountainous areas with steep slopes, oxenization programmes in tsetse-infested areas

2. Biological factors, cassava root harvesting machinery, rest and diseases

3. Technical and educational factors; development of knowledge, attitudes, skill required to operate, maintain & services agricultural development.

4. Economic factors, understanding of cost and benefits of operations for maximum efficiency and output.

DISCIPLINES OF STUDY OF AGRICULTURE MECHANICS

1. Land and water resource development

2. Preventing excessive water loss by retaining the needed i.e. water conservation

3. Controlling excessive soil loss from field I,e soil conservation

4. Processing and storage of agriculture products;

Activities involving processing of raw agriculture products e.g. vegetables, fruits, grains in processing industries.

Farm survey and mapping

Include farm structure e.g. buildings fences, dips crushes, roads etc

Plant and animal production

Activities including farm operation involved in crop and rising livestock

FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Introduction

There are many operations and tasks that are performed in the farm during crop and livestock production. Some of these tasks are so complicated that they cannot be performed to one’s satisfaction by use of mere hands. A farmer therefore needs various tools and equipment.

Tools are quite simple and are held in the hand as one performs a particular operation.

Why farmers use tools and equipment

1. To increase efficiency and make farm operations easier

2. Farm jobs can be done easily and quickly

3. To minimize injuries to livestock

4. They relieve farmers of fatigue from tiring tasks

5. To enhance production

6. Enable farmers to produce better quality products

Categories of farm tools and equipment

There are five categories of farm tools and equipment

1. Garden tools and equipment

2. Workshop tools and equipment

3. Livestock production tools and equipment

4. Plumbing tools and equipment

5. Masonry tools and equipment

The choice of the tools in any of the categories will depend on various factors; such as:

1. The task to be performed

2. The tool’s efficiency

3. The level of knowledge

4. Skill of the user

5. The availability of the tool

Topic 4: Mechanization in agriculture | Agriculture Form One

Garden tools and equipment

These are all the tools and equipment that a farmer needs for crop production. Right from the first stage of crop production up to the final stages of harvesting and post-harvesting practices, a number of tools are required to carry out most of these activities efficiently.

There are many field management practices that are done in the farm such as:

  • Pruning
  •  Pest and disease control
  • Watering
  • Weeding
  • Transplanting, Drying the grains
  • Earthling up, harvesting
  • Transportation e.g.
These tools include

Hand hoe or member, used for seedbed preparation, planting and hank sting of roots crops AXE: Used to cut down trees

Pick axe and Mattock: Used for digging up stones and tree stumps (roots)

HOE: Used for seedbed preparation, planting weeding and harvesting of root crops

FORKED HOE: – Used for removing underground perennial weeds, digging hard, store wet or muddy soils and harvesting of tuber owns i.e. Irish potatoes.

SPADE: Used for digging in place of a jembe e .g in stone places and removing soil when digging holes and applying manure

Agriculture Form One: Mechanization in agriculture | Topic 4

 

 

 

 

 

Wheel barrow: Used for transporting small load like sand, bags of seed or seedling during transplanting, bags of fertilizer within a short distance.

SPRING BALANCE: – Used for weighing farm produce and farm inputs.

RAKE

Used for collecting together uprooted plant roots and stems, rhizomatous weeds or precious crop residue.

  • Breaking large soil clods and removing stones and other rubbish to obtain afire tilt for tiny seeds.
  • Leveling and finishing off the seedbed
  • Collecting mowed grass.

Water pump and Watering can: Used for watering seedling in seedlings in seed boxes, potted plants, nursery beds, transplanted seedlings and seeds.

Tape measure: Used for meaning distance and length

Soil Anger: Used for soil sampling i.e. during soil analysis/ testing digging holes for fixing fence posts

 

 

 

 

Knapsack sprayer: used for applying agrochemicals such as folia fertilizer, herbicides or pesticides to crops efficiently economically and safely.

Sprinkler: used for applying water to crops in overload safely. Used for applying water to crops in over head irrigation.

 

 

 

 

 

Hose pipe:

Used for conveying water from one area to another

 

 

 

Garden shear:

Used for trimming hedges and shrubs in the farm

 

 

 

 

Pruning saw:

Used for pruning perennial crops like coffee, citrus fruits and pollarding trees.

 

 

 

 

Meter rule:

Used for measuring out distance Secateurs:

Pruning crops like coffee and cutting unwanted branches and sucker of flowers

Garden trowel: Used for loosening the soil

Digging small shallow holes

Lifting out seedling from the nursery beds during transplanting

 

 

 

Garden fork

Used for weeding in a nursery or carrot fields, preparing holes for transplanting seedling Manure fork:

Used for turning and collecting manure on the farm

 

 

 

Pruning hook:

Used for cutting branches of tall trees Pruning crops like tea

Shovel:

Used for scooping loose soil, fertilizer, seeds and sand Leveling board:

Used for leveling a prepared seedbed especially in rice fields. Dibber:

Used for making holes into which seedling can be transplanted

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sickles:

Used for cutting grass and harvesting cereal crops like rice

Anvil pruner:

Used for pruning in coffee, cocoa and rubber plantations, in vineyards and orchards and for horticultural purposes.

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

These are tools and equipments used for routine management practices in livestock e.g.

  • Identification
  • Castration
  • Dehorning
  • Disease and parasite control
  • Breeding
  • Milking and
  • Restraining animals

They facilitate easy handling of the livestock thus minimizing injuries to livestock and to the stock handlers.

Elastrator:

  • To enlarge the rubber ring during castration of small livestock
  • To de-horn livestock
  • For the docking of lambs

 

 

 

Burdizzo

Used for bloodless castration of bulls, rams and Billy goats by snapping the spermatic cords.

Syringes and hypodermic needles

Used for administering injections and taking blood samples

Syringes can be for administering liquid drugs e.g. vaccines and to infuse antibiotics into the teat canal for preventing of mastitis.

Thermometer

Used for measuring body temperature of livestock by placing it in the rectum for a given period of time.

Halter

Used for restraining cattle. It prevents chocking of the animal and ensures complete control of the animal.

 

 

 

 

 

Hoof trimmer

Used for cutting or trimming overgrown hooves of livestock e.g. cattle, sheep and goats

Strip cup

Used for detecting mastitis in milk, the drop shows clots on the black plate

 

 

 

 

Tracar and canula

 

 

 

Used for relieve bloat in livestock through piercing the rumen to release gases. Wool shears

Used for clipping or shaving wool in sheep Ear notcher

Used for cutting identification shapes on the ears of an animal

Bull ring and lead stick

Used for restraining bulls, it gives the handler a safe distance from vicious which can be dangerous on coming closer to handler.

Bucket:

Uses for holding milk during hand milking Fetching and transporting water

Milk churn:

Used for storing of milk and transporting milk

 

 

 

 

Milk strainer / sieve

 

 

 

 

For removing any visible foreign matter Hot Iron

Apply heat to the horn buds to destroy the cells and prevent horn growth from these buds

 

 

 

Teeth clipper

For cutting of wolf-teeth in piglets Drenching gun / dosing gun

For oral administration of liquid drugs to animals e.g. during deforming

 

 

 

 

Bolus gun

For deforming orally using solid drugs (tablets)

MAINTENANCE

Looking after tools is sometime called Maintenance

If you use your tools correctly and look after property they will last much longer

  • The metal surfaces must be cleaned after you have used the tools
  • Scrape off any soil and moisture
  • If it’s still damp it may be left in the sun to dry
  • Do not forget it and not let the rain fall on it
  • Grease to stop rusting (oil or greasy)
  • Do not hit one tool with other
  • Sharpen and replace handles
  • Replace lost bolts and nuts
  • Store properly in a tool rack or tools cabinet
  • Replace worn out blades
  • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
  • Lubricate to reduce friction
  • Coat with oil to prevent rusting
Read also  COMPUTER NOTES FORM ONE – ALL TOPICS

FARM WORKSHOP

Is a place where storage, maintenance repair as well as fabrication of metal is done

Types

Mobile workshop

Stationary workshop

Quality of a good workshop

1. Should be at the centre of the farm

2. Should be in a well drained soil

3. Should have all the necessary tools and equipments put not expensive

4. Ample room for easy movement

5. Should be well ventilation

Advantages of a workshop

1. Reduce costs which will be incurred for repair and maintenance

2. It ensure continuous farm operation as repair is quickly in time

3. Offer time economy in relation to operation due to varying season’s

Location of the workshop

1. Should be constructed at the centre of the farm for easy access

2. Should be located in a well drained soil for easy passage

3. Should be located in a place convenient to other projects e.g. poultry

4. Should be have good ventilation

5. Firefighting equipment should be well placed

6. Walls should be high enough to allow easy passage of heavy duty vehicle

7. Floor should be made of concrete

8. Extension floor should be provided for storage of implements and machinery

Layout of the workshop (features)
  • Main overhead area
  • Washing and service place
  • Staff office
  • Wood working area (carpentry)
  • Metal working area
Safety precaution

House keeping

1. Working space should be kept free from Obstructions

2. Floor should be kept clean by wiping spilled grease and oil and disposing all junk and rubbish promptly

3. Benches and tools should be cleaned and properly arranged

4. Personal protection against injury

5. All tools should be kept in good condition

6. Wear goggles and use shield when grinding or welding

7. Take care when using powered saws and other sharp tools

8. Safety boots should be worn and machines having belt and gear should be fitted with guards to avoid accidents

9. Protection against fire hazards

10. All flammable liquids should be stored in approved containers

11. Make partitions using metal sheets or asbestos cement board where forges and welders are installed

12. Fire extinguishers should be easily accessible Wood work

Timber can be classified into

Soft wood – from trees with needle like leaves

Hard wood – from trees with broad leaves There are two methods used to convert a tree into boards or planks

By plain or through sawing

Quarter or kift saw

Basic woodwork tools

Saws

Cross-cut saw – used for cutting across the grain of timber

Rip-saw – Cutting wood a long grain / splitting log

Dovetail – saw – Cutting dovetail joints

 

 

 

Ten on/Back saw – Cutting joinery work in wood work of cutting wood grain in any directions

Plane

Jack plane – Used for sharing the surface of timber/wood make wood plain

 

 

 

Smoothing plane/Finishing plane – Finish the surface after jack plane

 

 

 

Try plane – General purpose

 

 

 

 

Hammers

Wooden mallet – is used to drive in wood chisels

Claw hammer – For driving nail into wood and removing nails from wood For straightening nails or metal

Ball-pain hammers

For straightening metal sheets and rods

For riveting

For driving in nails

Sledge hammer

For demolishing farm structures

For driving pegs into the ground

For breaking big stone

Spoke have

It is used for cutting and shaping circular work and forming the curved edges of board Planning curved surface

Rasp/wood file

For smoothing wood surface

 

 

 

Others saws

Bow saw – Used to cut thin and irregular curves

Power chain saw – Used for lopping and cutting tough wood Saw set pliers – Setting the teeth of saws

Compass saw – Use for cutting in irregular lines or curved surfaces and narrow places such as holes

Keyhole saws: A tapered and narrow blade like compass saw but its blade is Much smaller and longer

Metal work

Hacksaw : Cutting wires and metals

 

 

 

Cold chisel : For cutting heavy gauge metal sheet For cutting shapes in metal sheets

Single cut file and double cut file: For smothering or sharpening bladed of cutting tools Divider : To scribe area or circles on metal work

Wire brush : For cleaning the vices or to remove metal chippings in files Centre punch: For marking points on the surface of metal sheets before drilling

Screw driver : Driving in and out of metal or wood surfaces

Try square

 

 

 

 

Used in both wood and metal work

Used for checking squareness (measuring of 45áµ’ and 90áµ’) when joining piece of wood or setting doors and window frame etc.

Mallet: Used both in wood work and in metal work.

 

 

 

 

 

Used for shaping thin sheets of metal this could be damaged by using steel hammer.

G-clamp

Used both in woodwork and in metal work

Used fir fastening parts of wood together e.g. doors window etc

For holding together pieces of work when performing other tasks such as saving and cutting timber

Soldering gun

For melting rods or soldering wires when repairing or fabricating metal sheets or when joining wire using solder

Tin-snip

For cutting thin sheets of metal and iron

 

 

 

Ball-pain hammer

  • For straightening metal sheets and rods
  • For riveting
  • For driving in nails

Marking gauge

Used for making parallel line on wood

Wood joint

Every place that two pieces of wood meet each other is considered to be a joint. Most joints are held together with some sort of outside force such as glue, nails, staples, or screws. Joints are crucial to any type of wood construction. This includes furniture building, housing framing or picture framing.

Types of joint

Butt joint; Is the simplest and most easy joint to create where two pieces of wood joint

side by side by inserting dowels or nail and gluing together.

 

 

 

 

Halving or Halve tag joint; this can be corner-lap or a cross-lap. A corner-lap joint form a right angle where the end of both pieces meet while a cross-lap joint formed when two pieces cross each other.

 

 

 

 

Mitered butt joint; is similar to the standard butt joint, in that it typically joints two boards at the end meeting the side of another board.

 

 

 

 

Tongue and groove joints; this type of wood joint holds two boards together along their edges rather than their end or in the centre.

Mortise and tenon joint; it involves one board being fitted inside of a second board. The mortise is a square hole curved into the side of aboard. The tenon is a protruding pieces coming off the end of a second board

 

 

 

 

Dove tail joint

Method of metal joining

Metal plate can be joined by nut, bolts, screws and studs, resulting in temporary joint. Joint may be accomplished through riveting, gluing, soldering, brazing and welding, resulting in permanent joints. Permanent joining requires more specialized skills and relatively sophisticated equipment.

Soldering; is the process of joining metal parts by means of a fusible alloy called solder.

The molten solder is applied between the parts to be soldered. When the solder has cooled and hardened, the joint is complete.

There are two types of soldering;

(a) Soft soldering which require low temperature.

(b) Hard soldering; requires high temperature. Soldering equipments include soldering iron, soldering stove, fux, brush, and tinman’s solder

 

 

 

 

Welding; is the process of join two pieces of metal by melting them locally together with a filler rod. This is done by gas or arc welding.

Forging; Is the process by which heated metal is hammered into the required shape. This is achieved by the use of the following equipments. Hand fan forge to provide heat can be fire by charcoal or coal, Anvil used to support the work piece while it’s hammered

Sledge hammer used for striking the metal directly or by striking forming tools

Tongs; used for holding the heated metal. In the process of forging, the metal is heated into correct temperature by using a hand fan forge then hammered into shape quickly before its looses heat.

PLUMBING

It involves the cutting, threading and fitting pipe; piping materials include lead, cast iron, and asbestos cement, copper, plastic pipes.

Plumbing equipments includes;

Pipe cutter; for cutting pipes

 

 

 

 

Pipe stock; for marking threads on the pipe

 

 

A pipe wrench ; used for fitting pipe

Types of pipe fittings

Couplings; for connecting pipes in a straight line Plain coupling; for connecting pipes of the same size

Reduced couplings are used for connecting pipes of different sizes

Agriculture Form One: Mechanization in agriculture | Topic 4

 

 

Elbows; Are used to change the direction of the run of a pipe, usually comes in 90áµ’ and 45°. They may be plain or reduced elbows.

Tees; Used for branching off the main pipe line.

 

 

 

 

Nipple; Are short pipes with thread on both end, are used to connect two fitting

Agriculture Form One: Mechanization in agriculture | Topic 4

 

 

 

Union; Are used for connecting two pieces of pipes where either one can be turned or where part of the system will be removed for repair or replacement

Pipe valves; Are fitting connected within a pipeline system in order to control or shut off the flow through the line.

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