Within a particular society, community, nation or a family, there is some behaviour, ethics or standard which are universally accepted by the members of such organization unit. But also some unaccepted behaviour can be a character in some members. These two elaborations pertaining accepted and non accepted behaviour produces the term moral values
MEANING OF MORAL VALUES
According to Webster dictionary moral values are standards of goods and evils which govern an individual’s behaviour and choice. In this regard moral value concerns with principles of rights and wrong behaviour of certain society. It deals with judgment of good deed and bad deed of people or individuals in a given society. These moral values are derived from sources such as society, government, religion or self.
Importance of moral values in a society
Reduces crimes and different risks from our society. These include the risk of being imprisoned, death but also eliminate crime like robbery, prostitution, drug abuse and incest crimes.
Moral value induces positive relation among individuals such as unity, harmony and brotherhood. The accepted behavior induces good relation among the members of the society.
Moral values promote discipline, fear and wisdom in the society. The society which practice good moral values are disciplined in their daily life, but also are enriched with fear to God and they are wise in making their decisions. Within such society crimes like corruptions also injustices and partiality is eliminated.
Accepted moral values practices profoundly reduce the spread of pandemic like HIV/AIDS. This disease spreads because of unsafe sex, prostitution, alcoholism and drug addiction. These are morally unaccepted. But with proper moral values practices HIV/AIDS can be lessened.
Moral values induce family stability. The families in which the family members have proper moral values the pillars of good family like love, respect ad cooperation among the family members are normally observed. This eliminates the possibility of unnecessary separation (divorce). Many marriages in African countries have broken because of absence of moral values among members of the family.
Types of moral values
Our society is coupled with both good moral values and bad one. In other words it includes the accepted behavior and non accepted behaviors.
- Good moral values
These are laws, principles and behavior which are universally accepted by the members of society. These include trustworthy, hard working, honest, respect, faithfulness, greeting of elders, polite, decency, transparency and obedience.
- Bad moral values
Bad moral values are universally unaccepted behavior in the society. These include use of abusing languages, homo sexuality, drug abuse, unacceptable dressing (tight clothes and min skirts), subjected to pornographies, violence and sexual abuse, greedy, alcoholism, and believe on witchcraft (Alarnkrita, 2010: 88) some of these behaviors can be evidenced in our society as will be shown in next chapter.
Indicators of eroded moral values in our society
Indicators are sign or evidences which reveals the presence of eroded moral values in our society. The following are indicators.
Prevalence of HIV/AIDS victims and ARV’S services providers.
HIV/AIDS is a disease which spread through sexual intercourse, though there other ways. Prostitution business in many of city and urban areas aid a lot in the spread of HIV/AIDS, besides many hospitals in Tanzania have formed department to deal with HIV/AID victims by providing ARV’s.
Widespread of Youths addicted with drugs.
In many parts of major cities and urban areas have subjected with people addicted with illicit drugs such as Marijuana, Heroin, Cannabis and Cocaine. Example of the areas which many youth have addicted in Dar es Salaam includes Mchikichini, Tandale, Manzese, Kigogo, Jangwani, Bondeni, but also in other township and rural setting drug addiction is widespread.
Public have legalized prostitution, this has evidenced with presence of prostitution marketing centers. These include the areas such as Kinondoni, Buguruni, Ohio Street in Dar es Salaam city centre. But also even in other big towns and cities prostitution activities have legalized. In Tanzania, however, prostitution is a crime or illegal activity. This is also an indicator which reveals the presence of immoral practices in Tanzania society.
Disappearance respect of youths to elders. Disappearance of respect to elders have been wide spread for example few youngster rare offer their seats in commuter buses. But, also there has been evidence of some students beating their teachers, burning schools and so forth. These behaviours are triggered with drug abuse, poor upbringing and generally disappearance of discipline among the individuals.
Existence of teenage pregnancies and abortion. Many teenagers have been affected with early child pregnancies. These pregnancies have stimulated abortion and throwing babies. Many reports from medians like newspapers, radio and television have been giving information about teenage pregnancies and abortion
Homosexuality and marriages of people with same sex have widespread. The societies have been affected with homosexuality. But besides of this homosexuality it has compelled to legalize marriage between the people of same sex, example the practicable marriages have reported in Malawi and Kenya recently.
Violence and sexual abuse. Sexual abuses coupled with raping have reported in our society. Besides incest relationship had experienced. But also due to cultural practices violence in our families have been evidenced especially in Mara region on which wives beating have been an activity of a day. This violence has been coupled with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) not only in Tanzania but also in many African Countries.
Widespread of abusive language. There has been always spread of abusive languages to the public from some people. This has been experienced in populated areas like marketing centers, commuter bus stations and in the public transport. This has been stimulated by decline of moral in the society and lack of self discipline. The spread of abusive language lead the young generation to adapt and use it publically.
It is true that bad moral behaviors are prevailing in our society. The explained indicators above are an evidence of such behaviors. The government and its instrument have a great role to play order to address it.
The causes for and effects of moral values erosion in our society.
The indicators of eroded moral values are many in our society. This part is trying to assess the influences which triggers or propel moral erosion. Afterward, the consequences of such behaviors will be given out.
The causes for moral values erosion in our society.
Many factors cause the moral values erosion in our society. These are:
Drug addiction, excessive drug use causes moral values erosion. This is due to the fact that an individual losses control in his/her decisions and henceforth the moral value erosion is inevitable, the victims causes violence, raping and so forth.
Poor upbringing and divorce, Poor rising of children can propel to moral erosion. This is because these children become subjected with lack of self – discipline. However, this upbringing can be caused with parents divorce and lack of responsibilities of parents. The poor up brought children are normally prone with moral erosion and consequently subjected with crimes.
Peer pressure, moral values erosion can be also motivated by peer pressure if someone has friends with bad behaviors. Learning from friends through imitation can cause an individual to be vulnerable prone with eroded moral values, if at all his/her friends are subjected with such behaviors, for example behaviors like alcoholism, theft, and drug abuse can be imitated from close friends.
Advancement in science and technology. Science and technology has contributed a lot in moral erosion in Tanzania; the population participation in cyberspace has been done through internet, face book, YouTube and twitter. Besides, cellular phones and Televisions (TVs) indicate the presence of science and technology. It is these technologies where youngsters imitate some behavior through audio – visual devices. This includes being connected to terrorists groups, freemasons, pornographic movies and other films which reveal violence. These affect much our society and compel to moral values erosion.
Illiteracy/ ignorance, is the situation whereby an individual lacks knowledge or education on something. Many people become moral eroded unknowingly or they always not understand if what they are doing is not morally accepted. For example drug abuse can enhance moral erosion though many victims takes it for refreshment but its repercussions are bad, teenagers can engage in unsafe sex without knowing that can be infected with HIV/AIDS or without precaution on early age pregnancies.
The role of western culture, interference of western culture has been inevitable due to globalization policies coupled with science and technology. The African traditional culture has also been integrated with globalization. This has caused adaptation of master’s culture on the expenses of their culture. Thus, there has great change in dressing style; language use and eating habit which have consequently lead to change of moral values.
Failure of religious institution playing their roles. Religion has power to change people’s belief and morality. At the moment many youth in Western and Lowest developed countries are very rarely attending the worshiping places like shrines, churches and mosques. This has been an indicator that religious institutions have failed to motivate the youth to attend the worshiping places to listen word of God. These behaviors have been fueled with science and technology development and change in living style (modernization). The behavior of not attending prayers have motivated by moral value erosion through cultivating unaccepted behavior such as prostitution, drug abuse and other crimes of different nature.
The cause of moral erosion in our society is influenced with factors within and without our nation. Moral erosion in our society has many repurcations which can be evidenced practically.
Effects of eroded moral values
Indicators of eroded moral values have already given, but also their causes. Hereunder are the effects of eroded moral values.
The moral values erosion has stimulated spread of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD’s). Many people have been infected because of drug abuse, prostitution and alcoholism.
The eroded moral values lead to distortion of culture. Since the affected people, normally despise their culture and adapt a new culture like dressing style, dancing style and others which greatly causes the culture change.
Rampant spread of abusive languages publically. The moral value erosion leads the spread of abusive languages (insults) without considering the public responses. The bad languages have been used at market areas, bus stations and public transport commuter buses
Spread of street children. Moral eroded value compels to the spread of street children. This is mainly caused with throwing of babies, divorce and family conflicts. In many towns there are many children, without parents and therefore are affected with lack of basic needs like clothes, shelter and food. These children have changed into beggars, thieves and prostitutes which continuously affect their future life.
Increase of people addicted with drugs .Due to moral eroded behavior there has rapidly increased the number of people addicted (in Kiswahili Mateja). This has evidenced in urban centers like Dar es Salaam the areas of Manzese, Jangwani, Mikoroshini, Tandale and others have many youths addicted from drugs such as heroin, marijuana, cocaine and other illicit drugs.
Loss of man power for the country. Moral erosion has contributed the loss of man power. This is through imprisonment of people with bad behaviors but also drug addicted people have become weaker to be used in any economic activities such as agriculture, trade and handcraft. Thus with prevalence of bad moral values/loss of man power is inevitable.
Many members of the society have been subjected to crimes. Many crimes in the society are caused with moral erosion. These crimes include theft, robbery, incest crimes, corruption and others. All of these crimes have been caused with absence of moral values observance. The wide spread of crimes have several negative impacts which include violence, corruption, imprisonment of offenders and so forth. (Nipashe News paper, 24th May 2011) reported such crimes especially violence against women in Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Tanga.
Strategies for maintaining and promoting Moral values
Moral value is like a plant which needs to be watered, fed by fertilizer and weeded. Moral values thus have to be treated as a plant through maintaining and promoting it.
The following are some strategies for maintaining and promoting moral values.
To use all important measures to protect our culture. An Institutions with authority of culture protection like the Ministry of culture, BAKITA (Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa), TUKI (Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili) should be responsible to make sure that culture is protected. When culture will be protected maintenance of moral values will be possible.
Encouragement of family stability .There is absence of instability in a certain family. The family which is stable is that which follows the pillars of stable family like cooperation, respect, love, peace and morals. The family stability discourages divorce and misunderstanding among the members of the family. Hence forth can be a factor for promoting moral values. With stability in morally at family level will be same at the national level.
Encouragement of leadership code of conduct observation. Leadership code of conduct is a kind standard to be observed by a leader, this code can be enacted by the government or any institutions to govern a certain professional a civil servant. The leader who he/she is following leadership code of conduct will be free from corruption, partiality, dishonest, greediness and non-trustworthy behaviour. By avoiding these behaviors which are not accepted will promote and maintain the moral values.
Religious institutions have great role to play if will be empowered by government. Religious leaders such as priest, bishops, archbishops Imams and Sheikh have great role which they can play through their preaching to their followers. The government should use religious institution and leaders in maintaining moral values. This will assist in addressing immoral acts, such as corruption, drug abuse, robbering, violence and other crimes. Thus will assist the government in administering the citizens
Emphasis on civil education .It is very crucial in imparting certain value, skill and knowledge to the targeted population. Civil education can be on some topics like good governance, war against corruption the impacts and causes of HIV/AIDS and drug trafficking. Other can encompasses social problems like the violence against women/ female genital mutilation (FGM). This can be imparted through civil based organization (CBO), Non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) and through formal education in all levels like primary, secondary and tertially education. The knowledge obtained from some important topics are very vital in reviving the moral values in the society because will address some problems like corruption, drug abuse, female genital mutilation violence and other impediments.
Extension and promoting guiding and counseling services. Some centers for guiding and counseling should be opened by the government. This will assist some people victimized with socio-economic problems through counseling of people affected with psychological problems and drug addicted people, consequently they can change their behaviours. This can enhance proper moral values in our society. However, in Tanzania there is very few counseling and guiding centers perhaps in some Universities and hospitals where rare gives this service. But in our society there are many people with problems and thus in need of services.
Adaptation of defined good policies on globalization and science and technology. Science and technology can inevitable lead to moral erosion. The transferred science and technology in the recipient countries, should check the harms which might come out as the result of using such technology, for example, the use of internet (website), abortion devices, some films which portray violence and pornography .But also ,there should be some policies to guide a country in globalized world on which some immoral behaviors are interconnected like bad dressing, drug abuse (illicit drugs) violence and crimes like incest, marriage of between people of same sex (lesbian and gays). Thus, some laws and policy on science and technology and globalization should be very carefully implemented.
Evaluation of the impacts for cultural and technological change to our moral values
With development of science and technology, immigration and globalization, cultural and technological change is inevitable. This is because some values, norms, customs and traditions are drawn from one culture and added in others culture, this brings cultural change. Technological change cannotbe isolated from culture change because contributes a lot in change of culture. But before going in detail the concepts of cultural change and technological change should be conceptualized.
Meaning of culture and technological change
In ordinary level cultural change is the situation whereby some traditions, norms, customs, technology, beliefs and other elements are drawn from one society/tribe or national and are adapted in other culture of other society/national. This subsequently, causes the recipient community to loss the purity of its original culture. But also, technological change is additional of the new art of making and producing things, this is in the realm of crafts, games, songs and arts. Thus, technology advancement cannot be isolated from the factors which motivate cultural change.
Factors for cultural change
Foreign domination through colonialism and neo-colonialism.
Influences of socialization agents like mass media, peer groups, schools and religion
Social, political and economic liberalization include multiparty politics, Gender equality, trade liberalization and privatization.
Immigration and migration of the people
Advancement of science and technology together with globalization policies. (It has been operated through importation of new science and technology, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and implementation of privatization policies.
The above influences have caused culture and technological change and hence forth disturbance on moral values of our country/ society.
Impacts of cultural and technological change to our moral values
Culture and technology change affect a lot moral values in many society. These effects can be grouped into two, positive and negative ones.
Positive effects in our moral values as the result of cultural and technological changes
Transparency and accountability has been observed because of introduction of multiparty system. This has been facilitated by democratic principles observance. It has induced good moral values such as honest, non corruption leader as well as transparent and accountability in general.
The introduced science and technology has aided environmental protection, valuing of environment behaviours for example through some policies which insist on environmental issues such as the use of alternative source of energy such as biogas, solar energy, wind energy and others are new in our technology but are highly embraced.
Cultural change has led an institutionalization of some liberal policies such as economic, political and social liberalization. In economic liberalization it has eliminated all trade barriers on international trade such as tariffs, harsh tax and embargoes. This has induced many people to participate in international trade without any restrictions. But also in social liberalization gender sensitization policies have been put in place. Thus the issue pertaining gender imbalances are observed. In political it has enhanced multiparty politics and elimination of monoparty. Thus some impediments and immoral values have been eliminated.
Protection and maintenance of human rights have been adopted by many countries especially Tanzania. It has been an agenda by many western countries and has tried to enforce it even in the Lowest Developed Countries (LDC’s). This have done through organization such as UN (United Nations), the commonwealth and NAM (the Non Aligned Movement) but also some institutions for observing human rights protection such as the human right watch and Amnesty International have established . This new ideas have induced moral values in our society.
Negatives effects in our moral value as the results of cultural and technological change
Education and other knowledge derived from outside cause cultural erosion, but also become opposed with tribes antagonistic with tribe’s cultures. This opposition can cause some people to be isolated by member of society.
The adoptability and assimilation of a new culture may require a lot of capital or resources which can be expensive due to limited resources. For example, an application of certain kind of technology or policy enforced by Western countries such as multipartism, liberalization, privatization and others. Becomes very expensive to implement but are also characterized with immoral values like false contract or corruption which have ruined majority third world countries.
Some cultural and technological change introduces new values, norms and traditions which are not acceptable like dressing style, for example, wearing short and tight clothes which compels to temptation of raping and other offences such as incest. Also use of modern cosmetics and decoration style totally eliminate people from their culture and henceforth lead to change of moral values in our society.
Cultural and technological changes induce unemployment. This is because many works becomes replaced with machines like computers, combined planters and harvesters and robots. Thus, due to unemployment the victims engage in drug trafficking and drugs abuse, prostitutions, theft and other illegal activities. Consequently, it has caused immoral values.
In evaluating technological and culture change many repercussions have observed, some have embraced moral values in our society. But, in other side some cultural and technological changes have promoted moral values erosion especially the use of imported science and technology and adaptation of culture from other countries.
CULTURE OF CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Some individuals within a particular family, nation or state, posses different properties such as utensils, houses, machines and so forth. These must be cared and maintained by the owners. Likewise, a country like Tanzania appropriates many properties like roads, capital of different nature (machines, equipments such as euro plane, ships, weapon arsenal and other) buildings and some facilities like car, motor vehicles and office facilities. These are to be maintained and cared by the institutions concerned. But, before going in details the concept of care and maintenance should be given out.
The concept of care and maintenance?
In a very ordinary sense culture means the total way of living of a certain group of people in a certain society.
But, the meaning of care and maintenance as the situation of the provision of what is necessary for the health, wellbeing and safety as well as the process of keeping something in good condition respectively.
Thus, from these two concepts,
The culture of care and maintenance is the culture which entails persistence behavior in protection, provision of what is necessary and keeping something in a good condition. Culture of care and maintenance is the concept which tries to show the behavior of protecting and maintaining properties safely without destruction, damage, depreciating (decrease in value of an asset or money) and disappearance through theft, fake documents and any other illegal methods. Generally entails rehabilitations or keeping the purity of something through provision of what is necessary.
Importance of the culture of care and maintenance.
Keeping on caring and maintenance has got some advantages and disadvantages. The following are importance of the culture of care and maintenance:-
Ensure sustainable use of properties for the future generation. For examples the culture of care and maintaining of environment through Aforestation and use of alternative energy sources will ensure sustainable use of environment.
The culture of caring and maintaining of state building, roads, ruins, airports will reduce the government expenditure in maintaining and constructing the new one but also will facilitate maintenance of its quality for long time.
The culture of care and maintenance enables the maintenance of culture of a particular society, for example through arts like carving, buildings, rocks painting and others, culture of a particular society is revealed and therefore when will be maintained can be the source of tourism attraction but also portraying culture for present and future generation.
The culture of care and maintenance inculcates the culture or spirit of valuing individual or state properties. The society which cares and maintains old things brings the spirit of valuing which is transmitted from one generation to other generation. However, many people in the society are not pre-occupied with this spirit, henceforth some crucial properties disappears or lacks a stable care and maintenance.
Also the culture of care and maintenance reveals a history of a particular society. Other properties reflect the societal historical background, for example, reveal when certain events took place , things like coins which were used at Kilwa can reveal the dominance of Arabs at that particular time, besides some stone buildings along the East Africa Coast portrays Arabs and Portuguese presence at the coast in considerable time
However, culture of care and maintenance can be disadvantage in some circumstances and can be evidenced with these facts:-
The culture of care and maintenance can reduce creativity and innovation. This is because people keep the old things which consequently lead to non-innovation and creativity behavior.
Profoundly lead to misuse of resources or properties, for example some old building (ruins) lead the misuse of land instead of using it for other purposes such as new buildings, investment and agriculture remains unused (unutilized).
Also the culture of care and maintenance causes reluctant behavior for government or individuals to widen the supply of services. For example, it will continue to embrace using old infrastructure such as roads, airports, buildings and utensils.
The culture of care and maintenance lead toleration use of rudimentary technology since there is no opportunity for innovation, creativity and research on new productivity and technology. This is due to the fact that technological change depends on time, space and environment. Since there will be no effort to innovate, creativity and research on new productivity. Due to culture of care and maintenance inevitably will lead rudimentary technology (stagnation in technology). Because technology change depends on time, space and environment.
All in all the culture of care and maintenance is good because profoundly lead to a multiple importance. But in other side toleration on culture of care and maintenance can sometime be disadvantage. Through this context, advantages exceed disadvantages. Thus, this culture should be cultivated in the heart of many people in Tanzania.