NECTA HISTORY ESSAY QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS FROM 1985 TO 2023 (I - IV) HISTORY FORM THREE ESSAY QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS NECTA HISTORY ESSAY QUESTIONS NECTA HISTORY ESSAY QUESTIONS FROM 1985 TO 2023 (I - IV) What Were The Impacts Of Dictatorship In Europe And The World At Large? How did the First world war cause Nazism in Europe How did the First world war cause Nazism in Europe How did Versailles Treaty and Great Depression cause the rise of Nazism in Germany? Methods Used By The Colonialist to Ensure Constant Supply Of Labourers During Colonial Economy History Form One Review Questions With Answers History Form Two Review Questions With Answers History Form Three Review Questions With Answers History Form Four Review Questions With Answers Examine the main characteristics, pitfalls and roles of pre-colonial education to the development of African societies. Why some areas in Africa experienced more intensive scramble than others?


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 1. Explain six significances of studying history. Answer:

I. Enables people to know their origin.

II. Enables people to know their culture.

III. Enables people to get employments eg teachers, curator, anthropologists, archaeologists, administrators etc

IV. Enables people to know technological changes.

V. Enbles people to know different events and how they occurred eg ww1.

VI enables learners to understand how African societies were formed.

VII. helps to develop the basic skills of critical thinking, reasoning, judgment.

VIII. develop and understanding appreciation of African unity and the need of it.

IX. enebles people to search for truth.

X. enebles man to know success and failure of ancient people.      

2. Discuss the sources on which the basic history is reconstructed (NECTA 1988) OR:

3. Name and describe the five major sources of historical information, what are the limits of History from these sources and why must the sources be handled carefully(NECTA 1985)


Oral tradition



– museums

-written records



-audio visual sources eg CD’s, cassettes, films.

4. Show the advantages and disadvantages of archeology and oral traditions as methods of reconstruction of history (2001)



-It provided evidenced of the past remains.

-It links the gaps left by other sources such as oral tradition and written records.

-Employment opportunities to archaeologists like Dr. Louis Leakey.

-Archeological sites can be used as tourist attractions eg Olduvai gorge.

-It yells us a great deal about man’s past life.

-It reveals the level if development attained by early man eg stone tools and iron tools.

-It reveals the level l if technology of past man..

-It can show religious beliefs of past man through excavating tools used during prayers such as cups..

-It makes history real because learners can see, feel and touch the objects excavated eg the skull of the earliest man.


–Does tell about past social organizations, eg how ntemiship worked.

-It can not reveal peoples languages.

-It is a Tim consuming method, excavations took long period of times such as months or years.

-It needs experts.

-It is not appplicabke to study recent history.

-It is very expensive in terms of tools used for digging, number of  experts and time.

-Poor interpretation of material excavated.

-Agents of weather such as winds, hurricanes, earthquakes etc can destroy the site and tools.


Necta History Essay Questions From 1985 To 2023 (I - Iv) What Were The Impacts Of Dictatorship In Europe And The World At Large? How Did The First World War Cause Nazism In Europe How Did The First World War Cause Nazism In Europe How Did Versailles Treaty And Great Depression Cause The Rise Of Nazism In Germany? Methods Used By The Colonialist To Ensure Constant Supply Of Labourers During Colonial Economy History Form One Review Questions With Answers History Form Two Review Questions With Answers History Form Three Review Questions With Answers History Form Four Review Questions With Answers Examine The Main Characteristics, Pitfalls And Roles Of Pre-Colonial Education To The Development Of African Societies. Why Some Areas In Africa Experienced More Intensive Scramble Than Others?




1. Show the relationship between the discovery of minerals and the growth of imperialism in south Africa (NECTA 1994) OR 2. What were the effects of mineral revolution of south Africa (NECTA 1996) OR 3. Discuss the effect of the discover and running of diamond and gold in south Africa (NECTA 1999)


Mineral in south Africa was discovered in 1867 when diamond was discovered at Kimberly and continued to 1880’s when gold was discovered at Witwatersrand. It’s contribution to imperialism were:-

-increase British interest to rule south Africa .

-improvement of infrastructures like roads and railways i.e. Capitalist constructed to easier transportation of minerals

-establishment of heavy industries

-land alienation -forced labor

-emergency of powerfully mining companies e.g. De Boers and consolidated  gold

-increase of migrant and unskilled labor

-loose of  African independence

2. appraise the advantages of iron technology in the pre-colonial africa (NECTA 2008) OR 5. Explain how discovery of iron led to changes in lives of east Africa in the 16th century and 17th century (NECTA 1997)


Stimulate agriculture

Stimulate trade

Increase of population

Improvement of security

Formation of states

Improvement of standard of living.

Growth of towns eg Meroe.

Growth of states eg Zulu

Increase of specialization.

Developed beliefs eg god Ogun in west Africa.

3. In which ways iron Age people different for the stone Age people? (NECTA 1999)


During Iron age :-

-Man used tools with better efficiency compared to stone agetools were sharper/lighter/smaller while in stone age there were crude tools

-ncreased production because of better/efficient tools while stone age people produce lower products

-man started to live in an area permanently instead while stone age people lived nomadically -cultivation of food began while during stone age people depended on hunting and gathering

-family life was more stable with the formation of villages while stone aged people lived scattered -began era of division of labor by class/gender/age/wealth while stone aged people lacked specialization.

-population growth while stone aged people were small in number.

4. Appraise forces which led to the development of trade in pre colonial African societies.


5. Account for the factors which enabled growth of pre colonial trade.


-specialization in trading activities.

-surplus production as a result of improvement of technology.

-increase of trade items such as iron tools, baskets, canoes, gold, slaves etc -development of well political organizations eg Buganda,Bunyoro, Mali -population growth.

-political stability.

-presence of trade routes.

-needy of communities.

6. What were the significants of trade in pre colonial Africa?. Answer:

-availability of goods to where they were not produced.

-emergence of wealth class (merchants/traders).

-growth of towns eg Jenne, Timbuktu, Gap in west Africa; Ujiji, Tabora, Kilwa in East Africa.

-growth of states eg Mali, Ghana in west Africa; Congo, Ngola in central Africa, Hehe, Buganda in East Africa.

-intermarriages which led to development of social relations.

-spread of technology eg iron making, basketry, pottery.

-spread of Islam, especially in west Africa due to trans Saharan trade.

-development of caravan routes.

-increase of production; to obtain surplus and to get enough food for the increased population 


1. Name three different system of political organization adopted by different east Africa ethnic tribes in the 18th century. Briefly name their economic activities (NECTA 1988)


-ntemiship organization eg among Sukuma and Nyamwezi

-kingdom/empire eg Zulu, Hehe, Buganda, Mandinka

-clan organization eg Yao,

-age –set organization eg Maasai

-sultanate eg Umwinyi along the coast

2. Show the factors for the rise of the Buganda kingdom in the 19th century (NECTA 1988)


3. Discuss the factors for the rise and consolidation of the Buganda kingdom (NECTA 1989)


4. Discuss the factors for the rise of the Mali empire in western Sudan (NECTA 1989)

6. What were the main factors for the rise of Kimbu empire in the second half of the 19th century (NECTA 1993)

7. Asses the contribution of Gold in the rises of and consolidation of Ghana empire in west Africa (NECTA 1993/2000)

8. Outline the factors for the rise of Kingdom of Karagwe (NECTA 1993) 8. Account for the rise and downfall of the Asante empire (1994)

9. Discuss the factors which led to the rise and fall of different states in western Sudan up to the end of the 15th century AD (NECTA 1997)

10. With the relevant examples show the reasons for the emergency and downfall of Congo Zambezi an states in central Africa (NECTA 2002)

11. Account for the rise of state organization in pre –colonial Africa (NECTA 1985)

12. Discuss the factors for the rise of the ancient Egyptian states (NECTA 2006)

13. Explain the factors for the rise of the Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom (NECTA 2009)

14. Account for the rise and downfall of Oyo Empire in the 19th century (NECTA 2010)

15. Explain six pre-requisites for state formation in the pre-colonial Africa (NECTA 2012)


-Good leadership eg Menelik II of Ethiopia, Mansa Musa of Mali etc -agriculture eg in the interlucustrine region like Buganda kingdom -trade eg Mali in west African long distance trade.

-good climatic condition, especially to support agriculture for food production -iron technology, eg Meroe in Sudan.

-fertile soil which supports food crops

-minerals availability such as gold for trade -conquest for powerful states eg Zulu -Migration (a contemporary factor).

-Size of the kingdom eg Ghana

-geographical location. Eg Ethiopia

-Strong army


-European intervation eg Congo with the coming of Portuguese.

-almovaids inversion

-war of conquest

-decline of trade

-decline of agriculture

-bad leadership

-migration migrated areas were negatively affected.

– presence of diseases eg sleeping sickness

– internal disputes or conflicts over succession eg Maasai

With Reference To Two Poems That You Have Read In This Section, Show How The Poets Have Addressed The Issue Of Leaders Irresponsibility. Give Four Points From Each Poem. With Reference To Two Poems You Have Studied, Discuss The Main Ideas You Experienced In Relation To Your Society. Four Main Ideas From Each Poem Like Other Forms Of Art Poems Reflect Social Realities Discuss The Main Ideas You Experienced In Relation To Your Society Explain The Ways The Poets Have Portrayed The Issue Of Oppression And Show The Relevance Of These Poems To Your Society Discuss The Effects Of Selfishness Among The Leaders In Developing Countries Discuss The Effects Of Selfishness Among The Leaders In Developing Countries How The Poets Have Addressed Irresponsibility Show How Poets Have Used Poetic Devices To Deliver The Message In The Society


 1. What were the consequences of Ngoni movement into east Africa in the 19th century (NECTA 1989)

OR 2. Asses the social and economic impact of the major migrations into east Africa during the 19th century? (NECTA 1985) OR 3. Using specific examples, how

3. Expansion of the Ngoni people during the 19th century affected the people of east Africa and central Africa (NECTA 2004)


Ngoni people were the people who originated from south Africa (ZULU/NATAL) Land. By 19th century the Ngoni people started to migrate into groups from natal land northwards where they found others in east  Africa been leaded by their leaders like;-Mpputa Maseko,Zwangedaba and gwangara.


-Expansionist of Shaka Zulu

-population increase

-shortage of land

-increase of European interest at the cape which stimulate conflict -severe drought by 19th century -famine and hunger.



-Decline of trade i.e. long distance trade

-destruction of farms

-decline of economy



-lack of security

-famine and hunger

-separation of families

-destruction of properties


-formation of  new states like nyamwezi under Mirambo,Hehe under Munyigumba

-introduction of new methods of fighting eg cow horn formation, hand to hand fighting and assegai (short stabbing spears).

-rise of powerful leaders such as Nyungu ya Mawe of Ukimbu.

-Fall of states in which Ngoni passes through eg Rwozi in Rhodesia.

4. Explain six social factors for early interactions in Africa;.


5. Long before the coming of colonialists, Africans were interacted socially. How far this is true?






Searching for -medicine -music and dance.

-Rituals and funerals.

6. Elaborate six factors that contributed to the occurance of Mfecane during the 19th century. (Necta 2019, QN 8).


Mfecane or Difecane was the wars which originated from Nguni speaking people.


– Wars among the Nguni.

-Shortage of land for economic activities.

– Coming of whites


1.Explain six characteristics of the first non-exploitative mode of production (NECTA 2015) OR.

2. The first non exploitative mode of production has its distinctive features from the rest. Comment on the notation.


-People lived by hunting and gathering

-people lived in small groups,

-There was no exploitation of man by man (no classes existed)

-Work was done communally

-Poor technology was dominant, man used crude tools such as stone tools.

-They lived the primitive life

-It is the only mode which every society passed.

– No surplus produced.

The only mode of production in which man existed and lived with other animals J. Man depended entirely on nature (surrounding environment)


  1. Examine the reasons for the development of the trans-Saharan trade and the effects it brought in the western Sudanic states (NECTA 2010, 2012) OR 2. What factors gave to the rise of Trans-Saharan trade (2001)


  1. Examine the growth and development of the famous west African trade which involved gold and salt as major trade items in the 19th century.


Trans-Saharan trade refers to the trade which was conducted between thetourages,berbers-western states and the people from middle east and far east across the sahara-desert.it involves the goods like;-salt,diamond,gold,spices,cowries from Africa, and manufactured goods like silk clothes,daga,pangas etc. from middle and far east.


-Good climatic condition which supported growth of crops needed in the trade

-peace and security stability available in western and northern Africa

-good leadership like Mansa Kankan Mussa and Tunkamanin maintained peace

-availability of goods such as gold and salt.

-introduction of camels and other pack animals such as horses and donkeys.

-it’s profitability

-role of Berbers, they were trustworthy traders.

role of Tuaregs, they acted as traders guides through the Sahara desert.

presence of oasis in the desert, it provided water for traders and their animals.

presence of trade routes.

presence of trade items such as gold and salt.


-increase of slave trade, thus weaker states collapsed.

-rise of some towns such as Jenne, Walaga, Gao, Chat etc.

-introduction of camels as a means of transport

-exploitation of African resources, by Arabs and Europeans.

-decline of trade i.e. Indian trade

-accumulation of wealth to the trade dealers (it was profitable).

-spread of western civilization


-decrease of man power

-emergency of classes i.e. the rich Vs. the poor

-rise of stronger states such as Mali.

-introduction of new commodities from outside Africa eg cotton cloth.

-spread of Islam by traders.

-growth of Arabic language

Generally; Europeans and Asians also participated in this trade they waited for goods stationed in North Africa. The Berbers sold these commodities to western Sudan through Berbers. Reasons for the collapse of thus trade were the stunt of the volume of trade, availability of alternative commodities obtained from other parts of the world eg gold, scarcity of water in the desert, wars in North Africa between Christians and Moslem, chaos in Morocco, Libya, Algeria and Tunisia by Turks as they forceful ruled these states, mistrust and suspicious amonhy Berbers, Arabs and Africans, epidemic of plague, industrial revolution in Europe, colonization and aftermath of colonization.

Who benefited from triangular slave trade and how (NECTA 1986) OR 4. What was Atlantic triangular slave trade and what is the major social and economic effects to west Africa(NECTA 1985) OR 5. What were the effects of triangular slave trade in west Africa (NECTA 1994) OR 6. .Explain the consequence of development of triangular slave trade on Africa (1997)


Contacts between Europe and Africa cemented in the 15th centy. Europeans were not interested much in Trans Saharan trade. By 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks and the source of slaves from this parts was cut off. Originally in 15th and onset of 16th centuries slaves who were taken from Senegal and Gambia were shipped to the fas and plantations of Southern Spain and Portugal. Triangular slave trade was the trade which involve three continent which are Africa,

America and Europe.it involve the exchange of goods like slaves,golds,diamond animal skin from Africa,tabbaco,sugar,and other raw materials from America, manufactured goods from Europe.


EUROPE, benefitted from the triangular slave trade in the following ways:- -market to sell her goods

-area for investment

-Area to  settle surplus population

-got area for sources of raw materials

-area for cheap labor

-Europe got wealthy and development

– Increase of production for European powers.

-The profit obtained financed the Industrial Revolution in Britain.


-depopulation, due to removal of man power and deaths of people.

-increase of slave trade

-exploitation of African resources eg minerals

-decline of trans-Saharan trade

-rise of some states esp. Coastal city states eg Port Novo -decline of some states like those of forest states.

-insecurity and lonely

-Separation of families

-decline of African economy eg agriculture due to extraction of abled people. -spread of western culture -famine and hunger.

-introduction of new commodities to Africa from Europe, eg cheap him, cotton clothes, beads, domestic utensils, outdated firearms, cheap gun powder and other assorted rubbish.

-introduction of black people in the new world (America).

-Construction of means of transport eg harbours

– Technological retardation. This was because the majority of the population as not permitted to engage in technological advancements.

– Destruction of Africans’ traditional industry. is goods brought from Europe flooded in African markets, although they were no way superior than those produced in Africa, Africans could not compete with the new goods from Europe.

-Destruction of African culture.

– Widespread of diseases such as syphilis. It was contracted by Spanish from the natives of the New World, soon spread to the Africans through the slaving agents on the coast who usually had black concubines.

-Spread of Christianity in west Africa.

-Africa was opened to the outside world.

  1. Explain the aim and results of the Portuguese invasion of east Africa in the 16th century and 17th century (NECTA 1995) OR 8. Examine the impacts of the Portuguese intrusion in east Africa in the 16th century

(NECTA 2007)


The Portuguese were the people from Portugal Spain. They came in East Africa in 1490’s due to:-

-trading activities especially gold

-spread Christianity and encounter Muslim influence.

-commercial exploration

-exploitation of African resources

-love for adventure

-to find the route to India

-maritime technology

-Monsoon winds and compass direction.

-to search pastor John (a believed legendary Christian ruler in Ethiopia).


-Decline of trade ie.trans-saharan trade

-spread of Christianity with little success

-increase of slave trade

-change of trade pattern/route

– exploitation of African resources

-spread of new culture ie western culture

-increase of whites in Africa


-introduction of new commodities

-introduction of new crops eg pawpaws, pineapples, oranges.

-fall of coastal city states like Kilwa and Mombasa.

-Building of fort Jesus which currently is used as a tourist attraction

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Linguistics As A Source Of Historical Information Advantages And Disadvantages Written Records Advantages And Disadvantages Of Archives Importance Of Studying History. History Form Three Topical Examinations Level Of Development Between Africa And Europe The Brandt Report History Notes For Ordinary Level

8. Account for the rapid expansion of slave trade in east Africa during the 19th century (NECTA 2005)


-Opening of clove plantation in Zanzibar by sultan Seyyid Said

-opening of sugar plantation in Mauritius and islands of Reunion by French -profitability of the trade

– involvement of local rulers in the trade

-trade contacts with Asia

-involvement of Portuguese in slave trade -Development of maritime technology.

-failure of other sources of labour.

-Profitability of the trade.

9. Discuss the impact of the Dutch settlement at the cape by giving six points (nectar 2016)


-land alienation

-introduction of slavery

-cattle confistication

-introduction of apartheid

-intermarriage that resulted to mullato

-destruction of indigenous culture -development of new language ie Afrikaan -introduction of Boer republics.

-Spread of Christianity.

-Several clashes with Africans such as Khoi and Xhosa led to depopulation.

-Introduction of diseases eg small pox.

-Introduction of new commodities from Europe.

-South Africans lost their political freedom from 1652 to 1994.


-Good climatic condition

-good fertile soil -presence of fresh water -good trade center.

-Presence of natural harbours.

10. hat were the causes of the great trek in south Africa (NECTA 1989) OR 2. Elaborate six reasons which made the bours to escape the southern cape 1830 and 1850 (NECTA 2014) OR

11. What were the causes of the great trek in South Africa (NECTA 1993) OR

12. Discuss the causes of bour trek and its consequent on the people of South Africa (NECTA 1997) OR 5. Identify the causes and effects of the bour trek between 1820 and 1850 (NECTA 1988) OR

13. The great exodus of South African farmers in 19th century has its causes and effects to the societies passed. Comment.


Great trek/Bour trek (Boer exodus) refers to the movement of Boers from the cape of South Africa to the interior escaping the British control. It took place from 1830’s to 1850’s across the Vaal River. The Boers who trekked away were known as Voortrekkers or Boer trekkers


-Introduction of English language by British -population increase (coming of British settlers).

-the rise of shaka Zulu

-whites interest in the cape of south Africa

-abolition of slave trade by British

-the 50th laws which gave equal rights to both Boers and Africans (introduction of black circuit court).


-Abolition of trade restrictions

-Introduction of new laws (new court system to replace old Boer systems).


-rise of new states like the Transvaal

-land alienation. The Boers used very brutla and treachery to rob the African fertile land and cattle. -fall of some states; which were settled by Africans as they were taken by Boers eg Orange free state which was settled by Tswan-Sotho communities.

-slave trade was abolished

-spread of new culture; ie European culture into Africans and the development of Afrikaner language.

-Depopulation as Boers encountered frequent attacks with Africans on their movement. – Introduction of apartheid; it aimed at preserving Boer’s material interests. At the same time, Boers regarded British as imperialists threatening their cultural and economic interests.

13. Why did Europeans take measures to abolish slave trade in the 19th c. (NECTA 1999)


14. What were the notable effects of abolition of slave trade (NECTA 2000)


The British industrial revolution of  1750’s, slave labour became redundant. Industries shifted European priority from slaves to demands of raw materials, needs of markets.

-American independence of 1776

-sugar  competition  between British and French.

-the French revolution of 1789

-the role of philosophers i.e. Daniel Defoe & Samuel Johnson

-role of economists eg Adam Smith

-capitalist production system which demanded free movement of labour (Development of capitalism).

-Constant slave revolts. Some run away and established independent republics eg Palmares. Another example was the Maroons who escaped in Jamaica and went into highlands where they set up their own independent farming community controlled by them, another uprising was located in French governed Island of modern Haiti, the slaves under Toussaint Louverture resisted and assassinated their French master in 1971.

-Competition between industrial barons and sugar barons. Absentee landlords in West Indies, lived in Britain and lobbied the Parliament. Industrial barons who dominated political scene of Britain opposed slave trade as machines replaced human labour.

-humanitarian reasons


-rise of legitimate trade

-rise of European trading companies

-spread of western culture

-spread of Christianity

-increase of whites population in Africa.

-rise of new states for setting ex-slaves i.e. sierra Leone and Liberia

-fall of states like Benin, Oyo and Dahomey

-colonization of Africa


-deployment of naval patrol in both Atlantic & Indian ocean trade

-enactment of laws which prohibit slavery and slave trade i.e. 1807-1833 by British parliament

-signing of treaties such as Moresby treaty(1822),Harmaton treaty(1845) and Frere Treaty (1875)


-Britain faced opposition from other European powers like French

-opposition from local chiefs who involved in trade e.g. Mirambo,Kabaka

-tropical diseases such as Malaria and typhoid

-few knowledge about African geography by British

-few patrol ships by British

-lack of fund and man power

-religious attitude i.e. opposition from Muslims

-profitability of the trade change the attitude of abolitionist.

opposition from African societies which slavery was their custom. In such societies slaves

themselves opposed abolition of slave trade.

-long strip of the east African coast.

-few manpower

  1. Show how legitimate trade rose and what were its effects to the people of Africa?


*It emerged after abolition of slave trade. It was the “fair” trade between Africa and Europe. Its major items of trade were crops and minerals such as palm oil, peanuts, cocoa, vegetables and gold.

Aims of establishing slave trade:

-Completely replace slave activities.

-Enhance production of raw materials to feed manufacturing industries in Europe.

  • Establishment of strong markets in Africa for European manufactured goods.
  • Compensate slave traders.

-Provide work for freed slaves ie enslaves them on production of raw materials.


-Restore dignity of humans (slaves).

-Introduction of colonialism. Frequently European trades and missionaries requested their mother countries to interfere and protect them especially in productive areas and eliminate African middle men who became a stumbling block to their activities. For example, the German incorporated parts of Cameroon and Togo partly because of traders who were requiring protection, also the British colonized Ghana under the guise of mediating Fante-Asante confrontation exercised the similar gesture.

  • Classes of people in Africa. Middle class of private traders and class of employed traders in firms from Europe eg Britain.
  • Increase of rivalries among European nations eg Britain and France in controlling in West Africa. -Urbanization eg Onitsha and Lokoja towns grew as trading ports to accommodate legitimate traders.

-Establishment of European companies to operate with European interests eg Royal Niger Company from Britain. It was a British company which joined all British small firms to compete African tradition firms.

  • Monetization in West Africa, banking and credit facilitation yo replace the tradition barter system.

-Development of infrastructures such as roads, railways and cannoes eg railway from Lagos to Kano in 1911, in Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast) from Accra to Sekondi. These were non public roads.

-Introduction of western culture in West Africa ie Westernization.

-Introduction of new cash crops eg coffee and cotton to supplement traditional kolanuts and palm oil.

-Tied west African economies yo those of Europeans permanently by determining prices of West African crops and determine type of manufactured goods to be transported to Africa. This has led to new colonialism (depndance).

Africa was introduced in the capitalist economic system.

-Establishment of trading ports and stations in the inlands that acted as commanding centers for draining African resources. Such stations included Dar-es-salaam, Nairobi, Ndola (Zambia), Onitsha and Lakoja in West Africa.

– Development of crop economy, plantation agriculture, settler economy and the mining of mineral deposits rapidly. Thus commercialized farming which doubled the volume of exports. eg palm oil plantations in Nigeria, groundnuts in Gambia,  gold mining in Ghana and iron ore in Liberia in West Africa.



The explorers, missionaries, traders and chartered companies were tools of capitalism and imperialism during the second half of 19th century. Explain this statement using examples EITHER from central Africa OR west Africa.(NECTA 1985) OR 2. .Explain the part played by the missionaries in the colonization of Uganda by British (NECTA 1994) OR 3. .Through their activities the missionaries became forerunners of colonialism. Justify this statement.(NECTA 2007)


“Missionaries prepared Africa for European colonization.” Discuss (NECTA 2016)


Discuss six contributions of agents of colonialism to the colonization of Africa


Through their activities the missionaries became forerunners of colonialism. Justfy this statement. (NECTA 2007)



Several European companies operated in Africa such as IBEAC under William Macknon founded in 1886, GEAC founded by Carl Peters in 1884, RNC founded by 1884 by George Tubman Goldie, BSAC founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1880’s and Internationale Due Congo (International African Association) founded by king Leopold II of Belgium.

Functions of agents of colonialism;

-to make African humble to accept colonialism

-explore Africa countries and sent back information to the mother countries -they acted as chief advisers to African chiefs

-some agents declare the colonial master to come and rule Africans eg.Henry Johnstone in Uganda

  • They signed treaties with African chiefs

-They appeared for their home government for protection.

-Participated in abolition of slave trade.

  • They set up a security system to ensure the observance of law and order in African territories.
  1. With examples from East or West Africa, show how company rule helped to create European colonization in Africa.(NECTA 2010, 2012)


-they administer colonies on behalf of colonial master

-they opened trade companies to prepare Africa market

-they traded with Africans

-signing of treaties with Africans chiefs

-they explored Africans and its resources and sent back information.

-They constructed infrastructures and administrative offices, which were later used by colonialists.

-They set up laws and order to maintain peace and stability.

8. Tactics used to occupy the cape By British Government

Introduction of land legislation system; They aimed at discouraging pastoralism among Boers and to encourage sedentary farming since the policy limited the size of an individual’s land. The Dutch thought that the British introduced the land law to take land from the Boers and redistribute it to the landless Khoikhoi so they opposed the land law.

Abolition of slave trade and slavery in 1807; The British government abolished slave trade in all their colonies and offered compensation for slaves but the money was only paid in London as a result the majority did not get their compensation. However, freeing slaves endangered the economic survival of the Boers as they depended much on slave labor.

Imposition of the English language as the as the language of administering the law and justice and the medium of instruction in schools in 1822. Hence English language replaced the Dutch as he official language.

Abolition of internal trade restriction imposed by the Dutch company officials on the farmers and other settlers at the cape. This created more trade opportunities as they could now trade freely without strictly control from the administration.

Introduction of the pass in 1809 to reduce the exploitation of African labor as the system required African workers to carry passbooks which indicated their residence and employment, and those who did not carry them were regarded as criminals. The pass prevented the Africans from moving from district to district or moving into areas occupied by Europeans.

Introduction of contract system; through this the Boers were to sign contracts with their workers. In those contracts they were to mention the wages and other fringe benefits that they gave to their workers. Therefore, the Boers regarded the contract system as British interference in the traditional Boer-Africans relationship of master-servant. vii. Introduction of the Black circuit court system in 1811 in order to reduce acts of violence committed by European employers against African employees. The law angered the Boers who considered themselves a superior race and thus natural masters of the Africans.

Introduction of English law as the basis of the legal system in South Africa.

Provision of financial aid to the British settlers by the British government, this encouraged more of its citizens to immigrate to the Cape as a result in 1820 some 300 British settlers arrived in South Africa increasing the total white population by almost 12% within weeks.

Necta History Essay Questions From 1985 To 2023 (I - Iv) What Were The Impacts Of Dictatorship In Europe And The World At Large? How Did The First World War Cause Nazism In Europe How Did The First World War Cause Nazism In Europe How Did Versailles Treaty And Great Depression Cause The Rise Of Nazism In Germany? Methods Used By The Colonialist To Ensure Constant Supply Of Labourers During Colonial Economy History Form One Review Questions With Answers History Form Two Review Questions With Answers History Form Three Review Questions With Answers History Form Four Review Questions With Answers Examine The Main Characteristics, Pitfalls And Roles Of Pre-Colonial Education To The Development Of African Societies. Why Some Areas In Africa Experienced More Intensive Scramble Than Others?


  1. Describe the motives behind the scramble for and partition of Africa (NECTA 1985)


  1. Why did Europeans nations show an increasing interest in east Africa in the nineteenth century?(NECTA1996)


  1. Account for six reasons that led to the scramble for and partition of Africa in the second half of the 19th century (NECTA 2011)


  1. Why African colonization during the 19th century


-industrial revolution

-national prestig

-superiority complex

-European balance of power

-humanitarian reasons

-Europeans nationalism

-Areas to settle excess population of Europe (settlers).

  1. Why did Egypt attract imperialist powers during the scramble for and partition of Africa (NECTA 1999)


  1. Why the position of Egypt of special importance to imperialist power during the scramble for and partition of Africa (NECTA 1996) OR 14. .Relate the opening of Suez canal with the scramble for and colonies in East Africa


  1. Why some parts of Africa experienced intensive scramble for and partition.


  1. Explain why some areas in Africa experienced more intensive scramble  than others ( NECTA 2008)


-presence of navigable rivers like Nile

-good climatic condition

-good fertile soil

-presence of large population which support market and cheap labour.

-minerals availability

-accessibility to the interior

-absence of tropical diseases

9.Give an outline of steps towards the colonization of southern Africa. Mention and discuss three motives (NECTA 1986,1996)


-penetration of agents of colonialism

-scramble for and partition -The Berlin conference.

-establishment of colonial rule

-establishment of political control

  1. Which tacts and methods did imperialist powers use in establishing colonialism in east Africa.(NECTA 1989)


  1. Discuss the methods used by Europeans to establish colonial rule in east Africa (NECTA 1988)


  1. What did the Germany use in the conquest and occupation of main land in Tanzania? (NECTA 1986,1996) OR 21. Analyse six methods that were used by the imperialist in imposing colonial rule in Africa. (NECTA 2014)


-diplomacy/signing of bogus treaty. eg British with Chief Lobengula (Rudd treaty), Carl Peter’s with chief Makoko of Zaire, Carl Peters with Chief Mangungo of Msovero, Morogoro

-collaboration (use of puppets). Colonialists employed Africans to impose European rule. They were puppets and spies of colonial masters in return of political or material gains. eg British used Semei Kakunguru, Apollo Kagwa and Stanislaus Mugwanya to impose colonialism in Uganda, also used chief Lenana of Maasai to facilitate colonial penetration in Maasailand, furthermore they used puppets in Ansant and Dante societies.

-military/conquest. eg Portuguese in Mozambique and Angola, Africans were led by Makanga and Massingire, German in Tanganyika (against Abushir and Bwana Heri in coastal areas, Majimaji in South West Tanganyika etc).


-gun boat technique. It involved diplomacy followed by military means. eg It was used by British against Jaja of Opobo in West Africa.

-Berlin Conference

Use of agents of colonialism such as missionaries, traders, explorers and company and associations.

Use of administrative methods. eg indirect rule, direct rule and assimilation policy which forced Africans to be under colonial domination.

-Ideological methods. eg through western education (Africans were created servants of colonialism eg clerks), racism, religion, language etc.

-Use of infrastructures as roads, railways, ports and airports.

  1. With concrete examples show why the conflict between Africans and the whites during the colonial period was inevitable. (NECTA 2007)


  1. With examples explain the reasons for African resistance to colonial rule (NECTA 2013)


15.The European did not find it’s easy to establish their rule in east Africa. Discuss this statement give examples of African resistance from east Africa.(NECTA 1985)


-land alienation eg Nandi resistance in Kenya

-taxation eg Abushiri and Bwana Hero resistance

-Forced labor eg Nandi resistance in Kenya

-low wages eg Majimaji war

-long working hours


-lose of freedom

-Disrespectful of African culture eg Kaffir wars in Xhosa vs British

-dis-regard of Africa local rulers

-use of cohesive apparatus like coarts,prison,army,police

-Cattle confiscation eg Nama and Herero vs Germans in south west Africa. -adultery eg German officers during MajiMaji war in 1905/7

16. Africans resistance against imposition of colonial rule failed due to Africans technological backwardness. Discuss (NECTA 2003,1994) OR.

17. Why Germany managed to colonize Tanganyika in spite of strong resistance from the people (NECTA 1993)


-poor believes like magic water (maji maji war)

-use of poor tactics/methods of fighting

-technological backwardness (use of poor fighting tools)

-poor economic base

-dis-unity among Tanganyika tribes, most fought on their own.

-inferiority complex of African.

-poor military communication.

-much knowledge of African continent by whites (through agents of colonialism)

– more war experience by whites.

-lack of proper war preparations by Africans.

18. What brought about the chimurenga war in Zimbabwe (south Rhodesia) in 1896 to 1897? (NECTA 2005)


19. Why did the Shona and Ndebele take up arms against the British in southern Rhodesia in 1965 (NECTA 1989,1993)


20. Account for Nandi resistance against their land occupation by the British.(NECTA 2009)


-land alienation


-forced labor

-low wages

-long working hours


-loose of freedom

-discourage of African culture

-dis-regard of Africa local rulers

-use of cohesive apparatus like courts, prison,army,police

-cattle confiscation

21. What is the importance of majimaji resistance in in the history of Tanzania.


22. What were the main effects of majimaji reprising in Tanganyika? (NECTA 1993)


23. The Maji –Maji war of 1905-1907 in Tanganyika remains a symbol of the African struggle against colonial rule. Justify. (NECTA 2008)


-it was a lesson to whites that African were not ready to be colonized

-colonialist made some reforms to their administrative system by employing young educates Africans in the colonial government

-it stimulated African nationalism. Other African states used Majimaji as their motivation of unity during their independence struggle.

-stimulate unity among the people

-it contributed to the Tanganyika independence

-it taught Africans a bitter lesson that without proper preparations and strong unity, they could never win against whites.

24. What were the causes and effects of the 1884/1885 Berlin conference (NECTA 1994)



-to resolve conflict among the European powers by peacefully means

-Germany ambition to prohibit French interest in Africa under chancellor Bismarck


-division and re-division of African continent among the European  powers

-setting of demarcations/boundaries

-loose of African freedom

-European conflict was resolved by peacefully means

-replacement of ethnics/tribes e.g.;- the maasai of Tanzania and Kenya

-introduction of colonialism and its outcomes.

-it postponed the war for about thirty years until the first imperialistic war of 1914


-effective occupation

-abolition of slave trade

-navigable rivers should remain free to users

-notification principle i.e. If got a colony should announce to others

– protection of agents of colonialism such as missionaries, traders, researchers and doctors

25.Explain why Samore Toure managed to contain French for so long.(NECTA 1996)


  1. Account for Ethiopia’s successful resistance against colonialism. (NECTA 2010)


-early diplomacy contact with other European Nations

-good leadership of Samore Toure

-good and well organized army

-geographical location

-possession of better weapons

-iron technology

-proud of Africa (Ethiopia)

-good economic base. He was a wealth leader.

He paid his soldiers well.

-he had an industry to manufacture and repair his weapons

26.6Show the background to and the immediate effects of the system of indirect rule (NECTA 1986)


  1. With particular reference to Nigeria, examine the long term effects of the system of indirect rule. (NECTA 1986,1996)


-Africa loose political freedom

-exploitative in nature

-brought about social stratification/classes

-brought about regionalism

-lead to un-balance development in the regions

-creation of puppet leaders

-it strengthened divide and rule

  1. Compare and contrast British and French systems of administration as practiced in Africa during the colonial period. (NECTA 2009)


  1. Compare and contrast the Germany direct rule with the British indirect rule system as applied in east Africa. (NECTA 1985)

29.With examples from east Africa, to what extent was the British colonial system of indirect rule indirect (NECTA 1994)


  1. Explain six differences between Direct and Indirect rule (NECTA 2016



-both are exploitative

-both are colonial administrative system

-both aimed to meet colonial demands

-both use cohesive apparatus e.g. Courts, police and army                   -both applied in Africa.

-both were racist ie they both used whites in top positions.


-indirect rule preserved African administrative system while direct/assimilation not

-indirect rule use African chiefs while direct use jumbe and akida

-indirect rule respect Africans while direct rule not

-indirect rule was not harsh while direct rule was so harsh

  1. What do you understand by the policy of indirect rule which was applied by British colonial government in east Africa? (NECTA 1999).


-The system was inexpensive,

-British lacked enough people to administer colonies,

– avoided clashes with natives,

-administration structures existed in Nigeria and Buganda,

-geographical difficulties in controlling colonial Africa

-The British exercised direct rule in some parts of Zimbabwe because the natives and traditional chiefs opposed colonial rule.

  1. By using six points, explain how the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885 helped the European countries to prevent war that would have occurred due to the scramble for colonies. (Necta 2019, QN 6).


Each power claimed a part of African territory was required to inform all other European powers that signed the treaty.

Each power attended the conference was committed to abolition of slave trade.

Effective occupation to those European states claimed to any part of Africa.

The conference agreed on freedom of navigation on the Niger which was put under British authority.

Congo was confirmed as a FREE STATE PROPERTY of Belgian under king Leopold 2. – The conference agreed on protection of agents of colonialism who were also agents of civilization.



  1. Describe the operation and effects of the migratory labor system in colonial east Africa (NECTA 1986)


  1. Migrant labors were useful to the capitalist during colonial economy in Africa. Substantiate this statement by giving six points (NECTA 2014)


Migrant labors were the labors that were recruited from distant areas and sent to production areas.

The colonialist created some areas where they were recruiting labor; these areas were called RESERVED AREAS. Example in Kigoma, southern Tanganyika and northern Uganda in East Africa. Benin and Nigeria in west Africa.Labours were then sent to production areas through different means of transport like railway/Transit coups and then were signing contracts.

-it was cheap since were paid low wages

-easy to control since they were recruited from distant areas hence not easy for them to unite and protest.

-migrant labor ensured constant supply of labor since they lived in camps so they could have provided labor power when needed.

-it was profitable since migrant labors were the markets of colonial masters -in ability of labor to escape.

– source of income to colonialists eg they paid for the dormitories they lived, electricity, water and other services.

Effects of migrant labor:-

-separation of families

-shortage of man power

-Hunger, famine and starvation.

-un balanced development between rural and urban areas -there was decline in population especially in the reserved areas.

-poor growth of African economies.

  1. Identify the mechanism through which cheap labor was obtained in settler economy in Kenya (NECTA 1988) OR
  2. How did colonial government ensure the constant supply of labor in their colonies in east Africa (NECTA 2000) OR
  3. Elaborate six techniques used by colonialist to obtain labors during the colonial period (NECTA 2015)


-introduction of taxation in cash like hut tax, titi tax, head tax.

-formulations of legislations e.g. Registration ordinance of 1921(kipande system), sisal labor beural (SILABU) IN 1944, pass laws in South Africa etc

-Land alienation

-creation of labor reserves eg Singida, Shinyanga and Kigoma

-destruction of African economies and introduction of foreign goods

-low wages

-creation of infrastructures system e.g. Railways, roads etc.

-forced labor

  1. How the colonial state did establish and consolidate settler agriculture in

Kenya (NECTA 1989)


  1. How did colonial state uphold the interest of white settlers in Kenya(2006).

How was migrant labour beneficial to the capitalists during the colonial period? Limit your response to six points. (Necta 2019, QN 7).


-ensure with constant supply of cheap labor

-provision of social services such as hospitals, schools, electricity and water.

-exemption from paying taxes so they can make profits

-Provision of capital to settlers and bank services

-ensure with fertile land through enacting of land crown ordinances, especially in Kikuyu highlanda

-assured them with defense and security to white settlers i.e. reserving special areas for them -construction of transport and other infrastructures to easier shipping/transport their goods/raw materials

-provision of loans to settlers with very low interest rates

-settlers were given monopoly to produce highly valuable crops such as coffee

  1. Describe briefly the common characteristics of settler and plantation agriculture in colonial Africa (NECTA 2005)


-Monoculture oriented

-limited industrialization

-massive use of unskilled labor

-exsercive use of coercion i.e. land alienation, taxation  and forced labor

-large land was cultivated

-both were exploitative forms of agriculture

-import-export oriented

-most fertile land owned by whites

-creation of reserve areas for provision of labour

  1. How did colonial economy differ from pre- colonial economy (NECTA 2004)


-Colonial economy there is exploitation while in pre-colonial economy no exploitation

-excessive use of coercion in colonial economy while in pre-colonial not

-Import-export oriented in colonial economy while production for consumption in pre-colonial

-monoculture oriented in colonial economy while production of food crops

-colonial economy under whites control while pre-colonial economy Africans themselves controlled

-colonial economy there were advanced in technology while pre-colonial poor technology -colonial economy bases on production of cash crops while pre colonial economy was based on production of food crops.

-colonial economy trade was dominates by whites and Asians while in pre colonial economy trade was dominates by African chiefs and traders like Mohammed el Murjeb aka Tippu Tipu -colonial economy experienced construction of physical infrastructures such as roads, railways and ports while pre colonial economy was dominated by trade routes.

-colonial economy dominated by international exploited trade while pre colonial economy was dominated by regional and local trade.

  1. why was settler economy success in Kenya but failure in Uganda (NECTA 2002) OR 12. Identify six factors which determined the variation of agricultural systems during the colonial period (2012)


-Climatic condition

-colonial policy whether it supported that particular system or not

-population density

-nature of transport and network systems

-number of whites in the colony

-strength of political system i.e. Uganda was feudal system (African resistance)

-role of the governor and his interests eg Lord Delamore stressed on settler economy in Kenya while Harry Johnson stressed on peasant economy in Uganda.

-diseases, areas affected by diseases normally peasant economy was dominated as many settled were not interested in these areas

  1. How did the system of colonial economy in Kenya influence the nature and character of the struggle for independence in that country?


The following situations caused by colonial economy  lead Kenya to use armed struggle in Kenya:- -land alienation

-forced labor


-Low wages


-racial discrimination

-poor and harsh working conditions.

  1. Analyze six tact used by the colonialist to establish colonial economy

(NECTA 2013)


  1. Outline the mechanism through which colonial economy was established in Africa:-


-creation( Land alienation, forced labor, taxation in cash, money economy) -destruction

  1. How do you understand by the term de-industrialization policy? How was it applied in Africa:-


De-industrialization policy was policy that developed by Europeans to prevent the development of industries in Africa.it was done in the following ways:- -Importation of manufactured goods to compete with those of Africans

-laws were made to discourage industries in Africa.e.g  in Congo chopping of hands of crafts men -physical destruction of industries

-spread of western civilization

-construction of cottage industries

  1. With examples show how the establishment of colonial economy in Africa affected the african societies (NECTA 2015)


Introduction of money economy

-building of infrastructure

new products become available

technology is brought

neglect of food crops

ending of the barter system

destruction of traditional economic practices

ntroduction of new crops like sisal/cotton/pyrethrum,

Uneven distribution of social and physical infrastructure

utilization of cheap African labour

  1. Distinguish settler economy from peasant economy during colonial period (NECTA 2008) ANSWER:-

-Settler economy was supervised by the colonialist themselves while in peasant employ African chiefs

-in settler Europeans settled in the colonies while in peasant Europeans lived to mother country

Settlers interest were uphold by colonial government while in peasant not

-much use of forced labor compared to peasant economy

-settler economy burnt production of food crops while in peasant economy food production was encouraged

in settler land was owned by the settlers but in peasant land was owned by indginous themselves.


History Form Four Notes All Topics History Form Three Full Notes Colonial Education  South South Dialogue History 1 Full Notes Form 5 And 6

  1. What was wrong with colonial education system in Tanganyika (NECTA



  1. Show the main features and characteristics of colonial education in east Africa (NECTA 1993)


-pyramidal in shape

-based on racial discrimination

-based on biasness i.e. Son of chiefs and loyal families

-religious based

-more theoretical rather than practical

-it based on gender discrimination


-create classes among the society

-create puppet leaders

-spread of western civilization

-un-balance development in the societies

-Africans remains the producers of raw materials

-it brought about intellectual arrogance

  1. Show the economic and social effects to Kenya –Uganda railway line (NECTA 1996) ANSWERS:-

-exploitation of raw materials

-increase of settler interest in Kenya

-migrant labor were made possible

-availability of flourished goods in Kenya and Uganda

-increase of the number of white

-depopulation during construction

-increase of forced labor

  1. Briefly analyses the pattern of colonial infrastructures (railways,roads,ports and harbors) in mainland Tanzania showing how it facilitated the exploitation of the country (NECTA 1985, 2010, 2012)


-they were constructed in the production zones

-they were constructed in missionaries centers

-they were started from the interior to costal areas

-they were constructed to labor recruitment zones like central line


– to transport raw materials from interior to the coast

-to transport flourished goods from costal to the interior

-to transport troops to suppress resistance

-to transport migrant labor from recruitment /labor reserves

-to transport whites to the production zones

  1. Colonial social services consolidated colonialism in Africa. Justify this statement by giving six points


-Provision of housing to colonialist attracted them

-Water services assured them with good living and industrial activities

-Railways, roads, harbor enable them to import and export material and themselves – Electricity assured them with source of energy to run machines and home use.

-Hospital assured them with cure and treatment for them hence encourage colonialism Education helped to pas their culture, economy and get man power to assist


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