Positive And Negative Aspect Of Our Culture Values
– Respect and hospitality;- Refer to polite behavior that a person has towards other especially those he/she thinks are older or important to him/ her.
For example greeting. receiving and handling property, how to talk to the elder etc. Through these way children grow up knowing how well they can behave in their families and community at large.
– Caring for other people and property;- Among the people who may need special care in the society are children, old people ,disabled, the sick people and other people with special problem.
– Proper dressing;- helps to maintain ones personality . It make people look smart and acceptable to other member of the society .Currently in many societies there is an increase of parent outcry over the whole issue of indecent dressing among the youth. This problem is associated with the ongoing globalization process which among other things contribute to the decline in moral is the societies and more particular to the youth.
– Hard working;- This is another positive cultural value ,certainly because through hardworking the people in the societies are able to produce more and better quality goods and service for the individual and national development.
– Accountability and transparency;- Refer to a situation in which a person is held responsible for a certain task assigned to him/her and she /he may be expected to give satisfactory explanations concerning that task if there is any to need so. Transparency for that matter it means openness or without secret.
Accountability and transparency are therefore important cultural value that should be promoted by the society. Once these are observed the society expectation and wishes can be easily met.
–Honest;-This refer to a state of person being fair and trustful. It is another important cultural value that any society is supported to impart to its member .If this value is successfully imparted to the society member the immoral practices such as corruption ,theft , embezzlement of public found etc. can be minimized.
– Patriotism;– This refer to a situation in which one loved his/ her country. Patriotism is an important cultural aspect since it enable the member of a given country to participate fully in the development activities in their country .Because of the love for their country people can even be ready to die for it.
– Co-operation or participation in various social activities ;- Is important culture value because it helps to create unity and increase strength towards accomplishment of certain task for the sake of attaining common goals in the society.
Positive And Negative Aspect Of Our Culture Values
1. Female Genital Mutilation;- According to the world Health organization is define as all procedure that involve partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other intentional mutilation of the female genital organs ,whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reason.
Reasons which force people to engage in (FGM)
Most reasons are based on the nature of the society. Among these are as follows:
- To control women’s sexuality. Societies which adopt this practice (FGM) know that biologically there are some parts of the body which are very sensitive during sexual intercourse. One of them is the clitoris. So to prevent a girl from developing interest in sexuality and become loose they mutilate it.
- It is propounded that FGM goes with initiation ceremonies that promote young girls to women hood. Thus it is considered by some prestige traditional societies as a prestige and a sign of maturity among girls.
Effects of Female Genital Mutilation
1. Marital conflicts due to sexual dissatisfaction. This situation can result from two reasons. Some men dislike women who are mutilated. On the hand, circumcised women don’t enjoy the sexual activity. Thus, they lack satisfaction in sexuality and may dislike sexuality altogether.
Reduction of sexual pleasure during sexual intercourse.
Women who are mutilated develop a feeling of anxiety and depression. This can be a result of the pain they feel during circumcision or due to the deformation of their pain they feel during circumcision or due to the deformation of their genitalia. This can cause psychological disturbance.
Prolonged bleeding during and after the mutilation.
Disturbance of the natural vaginal elasticity during delivery due to the scar left after mutilation.
The practice can lead to the loss of one’s life. (Death)
Possibility of getting the HIV/AIDS infection as this practice is done under unsafe conditions. Sometimes a single knife is used to circumcise several girls/women without being sterilized. For this case, those who are mutilated have the risk of being infected with HIV/ and may also get other diseases.
2. Widows inheritance;- This is practice of taking a woman (widow) after the death of her husband. This act has negative effective because it can lead to the contracting of the HIV/AIDS if one of the partner is a victim of HIV/AIDS.
This act is also a violation of human right because it turns the woman as object of pleasure and sometimes the property of the inherited widow are taken by the new husband and the humans left with nothing.
3. Early marriage; This is the process/situation whereby a person gets married before his/her right age. Normally the suggested right age for marriage is 18 years and above.
This has been happening especially to young girls who21are married while they are still in tender age. These types of marriages are sometimes accompanied by forced marriages.
4.Forced marriage; refer to situation in which a boy or girly is being forced by parents or relative to get marriage to a person he/she don’t want. This practice is more common to girls than boys . The reason is, some parents depend on the dowry or bride price they get as capital for production.
Both early and forced marriage have contributed to several negative effects including marital conflict which in turn lead to separation and divorce hence leads to an increase of street children.
5. Polygamies;- This is a situation whereby one man get married to many wives. This practice can leads to the spread of HIV/AIDS. The practice can also leads to having many children that the parents may fail to take care of them thus end up being street children.
6. Belief in witchcraft;- Is common among some illiterate societies has greatly contributed to various negative effects. The notable effect include the killing of the innocent people include the old women with red eyes due to some allegation that they are the one ones who bewitch other people .This practice is very common in area like Shinyanga and Mwanza in Tanzania.
7. The killing of twins and handicapped people; In some tradition societies Elders, twins and other people with handicaps such as albino were being killed due to the belief that having such as people in the family or societies was a curse from the God and if such people are left the society will be facing misfortunes.
However, in recent years the killing of the albinos has been associated with the belief that some of their body organs bring fortunes to people engaging in various activities such as business ,especially in the mining and commercial sector .This belief has contribute much to the killing of albinos in different part of our country.
8. Paying of bride price ;-Is payment made to the parent of daughter or women who is to be marriage by the person or the family of man who want to marry. The paying of bride price has led to misconception that the married women has been bought just like any other items. As a result of this misconception same man in some societies tend to mistreat their wives.
9. Food taboos; These refer to practices where by women and girls are restricted or forbidden from taking same kind of food varieties especially those which are delicious and nutritious such as eggs, liver. Chickens etc .These practices may have negative effects on women health.
IMPACTS OF NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF CULTURAL VALUES
In brief each negative aspect of cultural values that have been discussed above and may other can leads to the following;-
1. Spread of sexual transmitted infections (STI’s), HIV/AIDS. Such as Widow inheritance, Forced Marriages and FGM because the instruments used are not sterilized and are used by the whole group being circumcised.
2. Complication during child delivery and unnecessary death due to Prolonged breeding during and after the mutilation
3. Marital conflicts (Family conflicts) due to wife battering, widow inheritance, may lead to divorce hence street children
4. Problem of Orphans and street children due to loss of parents because of HIV/AIDS.
5. Illiteracy due to Early marriage hence young girls forced to drop out from school.
6. Violation of human rights to women who are sometimes treated as bought objects, due to bride price, as well as widow forced marriage, early marriage etc.
7. Lack of sprit of competition hence Women being left out in areas of development, Few women in managerial and decision making levels.
8. Violence and aggression. Due to Gender biases
9. Deterioration of health due to food taboos.
10.Crimes, like beating of the bride women when she refuses to obey.
MEASURES / WAYS OR ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN AGAINST NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF OUR SOCIO-CULTURAL VALUES
(a) The strategies to liberate women (women empowerment)
women empowerment can be improved if the following things are considered;
1. The formation of women’s social organizations. E.g. WAMA (Wanawake na Maendeleo), TAWLA, TAMWA, etc. This will help them to have a collective bargaining power for their deprived rights. Through these organizations, women can ask for assistance from the government or donors in order to enable them to open various projects. Women’s social organizations in Tanzania are like;.
2. The governments have to ensure that women receive equal opportunities as men in all social, political and economic issues.
3. The government should commit itself to the prohibition of all cultural practices and customs that oppress women like the female genital mutilation, polygamy, forced and early marriage etc.
4. Educating men to put off / to abandon the idea that they are created superior to women.
5. To establish special programs for improving life standards of women especially in the rural areas.
6. Improve the rural technology. To provide women with modern working facilities ploughs, milling machines.
7. To inculcate a sense of awareness to all members of society that, women are able people and can do everything like men. Therefore, they have capabilities of thinking and performing like men. This will stop old perceptions of looking women as enabled people.
8. To improve and increase the education opportunities to women. If education opportunities will be improved to women, the development of the country will increase. Also the whole society will be almost educated if we refer to the slogan that says “When you educate women, you educated the whole society” To date, education opportunities to all in Tanzania is positively implementation , since the government has increased the chances for girls and women in education sector. For example there is a programme of enrolling more women students at the University of Dar es salaam who have been learning science subject when they were at secondary school (Advanced level).
9. To improves access to the resources such as land, the situation which is still difficult to some societies in which women have no right to inherit resources such as land? However some societies have managed to reduce this problem. For example, in many tribes of Tanzania women have now rights to own property and equal access to natural resources.
10. To participation in political matters and other economic activities. To justify this, the government has added more than 15% special seats in parliament for women in order to bring about gender balance and equal control of resources.
11. To make people aware with all things which cause gender inequality. In general, the world is still emphasizing much on women empowerment through different forums and organization which try to defend the rights of people such as human rights.
(b) Strategies to liberate the entire society
1. To educate the people on the impacts of negative aspect of cultural value.
-The entire society should be enlightened on the bad impacts of the negative aspects of our socio-cultural values.
2. Improving women access to resources such as land cattle and forms of property.
3.The government should enact strict Laws against those who entertain the negative cultural values like the practice of witchcraft, the killing of twins, the handicapped and albinos.
4.Equal participation in political matters. This will enable women to participate in decision making in various, especially at the village government level, where problem related to the socio-cultural values are mostly experienced.
5. The community should be aware of all things which cause gender inequality
PROMOTION AND PRESERVATION OF OUR WORTHY CULTURAL VALUES;–
Is a combination of efforts made by people under their government to enhance growth and existence of the national culture which has to be practiced in the nation.
Factors for promotion and preservation of National Culture Matters which can promote the growth and existence of culture are:
- National language that should be spoken by the people and used for instruction in schools.
- Protection of handcrafts industries against foreign goods competition such as importation of unnecessary goods.
- African artists like singers, dancers, poets should be assisted in composing and recording.
- Popularization of local culture in mass media using-radio, television, videos, etc. The Tanzania media is doing a good job to promote our culture.
- Commitment of leadership to promotion of national culture i.e. leaders should encourage people to practice the national cultural ways of life.
IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTING AND PRESERVING OF OUR WORTHY CULTURAL VALUE
i/ To maintain our national identity .
ii/ To provide a foundation for stable governance.
iii/ To maintain our useful value systems
iv/ To protect our country from cultural de-culturalization through globalization.
v/ To maintain our cultural heritage.
vi/ To create a sense of nationhood and promote cohesion in the daily life of Tanzania