Qn: Examine critically the steps taken to solve problems hindering development in Africa after independence

Introduction of multiparty, most African countries decided to introduce more than one political party so as to provide an opportunity for citizens to compete in the political arena since this contribute in making the government more accountable as the oppositions operate as a watchdog.

Constitution revision most African countries have been revised their constitution to limit the term of the leaders to a maximum period usually two terms. Also political candidates are now required to show proof of a good educational background in order to eliminate possibility of having inept leaders.

Strengthening of democracy through African Union by allowing innervations in case of evidence of violence and abuse of human rights in member countries, this prevents political instabilities in countries and pre-empts refugee problems in the continents. Affirmative action has been accepted in order to uplift women I leadership. For example Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda have made great progress in this sphere.

Establishment of regional organizations contributing to the stability of African states by improving social and economic welfare of the citizens and expanding commerce, transport and communications infrastructures.

Introduction of modern information systems such as internet and cell phones helped in boosting economies of Africa by cutting down on unnecessary labour and by ensuring watertight security of money and goods in both government offices and private companies. Use of cell phones also facilitates quicker and more financial transactions.

Partnership with developed countries through privatization of public corporations for the aim of promoting development especially in productive areas such as minerals and oils prospecting

HIV/AIDS campaigns in order to inform citizens on ways of protecting themselves and on how to assist infected people

Establishment of social security fund aimed at protecting retirees and those retrenched from work due to ill health from experiencing serious financial problems.

Establishment of revenue collecting bodies like Tanzania Revenue Authority, Uganda Revenue Authority and Kenya Revenue Authority in order to strengthen economy and avoiding economic dependency on foreign countries


Qn: Analyze the successes and failures of the steps taken to solve problems hindering development in Africa


Multi party system has promoted democracy and government accountabilities as well as helped to reduce abuse of powers and corruption among African political leaders within the continent.

Respect and adhering constitutional requirements especially in political issues like elections

Promotion of gender mainstreaming programs in order to allow women and girls to advance politically, economically and socially since now day women are no longer sidelined in political activities in Africa. For example Liberia is led by President Ellen Johnson-Sir leaf, a lady while Tanzania’s speaker of the parliament is also a woman honorable Anne Makinda.

Regional economic organizations contributing to political achievements in African countries through ECOWAS, SADC and EAC for example, African Union has played an important role in enhancing political stability by condemning electoral irregularities and condemning military takeovers in the continent as well as has participated in peace keeping operation in Darfur and Somalia since 2009.

Improvement of social arena through saving retirees and those retrenched from work due to ill health from experiencing serious financial problems. For example in Kenya the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) have both played a key role in uplifting the life the poorer members of the society. Similar program have also been instituted in Uganda and Tanzania.

Improvement of education system through adoption of different educational policy like Universal Primary Education (UPE), Education for All (EFA), Primary and Secondary development programs (SEDP & PEDP) all of these aim to fight illiteracy in the society.

Enhancement of economic stabilities and reducing dependency on foreign donors through establishment of revenue collection bodies; For example Tanzania Revenue Authority, Uganda Revenue Authority and Kenya Revenue Authority.

African states stability through setting up of regional organizations for example Uganda is the most important trading partner of Kenya.

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