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SUMMONS

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SUMMONS

SUMMONS

POEM 1

POEM : SUNRISE

POET: JWANI MWAIKUSA

A Tanzanian writer and lawyer. He studied law at the University of Dar es salaam and in England. He was a lecturer in the Faculty of Law at the University of Dar es salaam.

Sunrise.

Behold!

The sun has risen.

And with it the sons of the land have risen too.

Forward they go

Well armed.

Singing praises to the beauty of the sunrise.

With the determination of long-term warriors.

Challenging the enemy

With the courage of a free mind

And the vigour of a clear purpose.

Sit and wait brethren.

Wait and see what glory they bring at sunset.

How they pay homage to their land

And their people!

GUIDING QUESTIONS:

Qn 1. What is the poem all about?

Answ: The poem is all about the revolutionary ideas among the sons of the land (the oppressed) who rise up with ideas of challenging the enemy. They are tired of oppression, humiliation and exploitation; therefore they want to liberate themselves from all kinds of evils that they face so as to build the better future.

Qn 2. Who is speaking in this poem?

Answ: The one who is speaking in this poem is a son of the land who together with his fellows, are tired of colonial malpractice namely exploitation, oppression and humiliation, hence, they decide to wage a class struggle to end colonialism.

Qn 3. Who is the addressee (audience) of the poem?

Answ: The addressee of this poem is any fellow member of the society which is full of evils such as exploitation, oppression and humiliation.

Qn 4. What is the tone of the poem?

Answ: The tone of the poem is happy; this is due to the fact that the persona is very optimistic (hopeful) that the victory is very near as they will mercilessly defeat their enemy at sunset.

Qn 5. The persona talks about “challenging the enemy” who do you think the enemy might be?

Answ: The enemy might be the oppressors, humiliators and exploiters who make people suffer from various problems like exploitation and oppression.

Qn 6. What type of a poem is this?

Answ: This is a sonnet poem as it consists of fourteen (14) verses (lines).

Qn 7. What do you think the “Sunset” and the “Sunrise” probably symbolize?

Answ: Sunrise symbolizes the beginning of the struggle between the sons of the land (the oppressed) against their enemy (oppressors). Sunset symbolizes the end of the struggle between the sons of the land (exploited) against the enemy (exploiters).

Qn 8. There is one line which does not have the normal word order. Which line is it and why is that so?

Answ: The line which does not have normal word order is the fourth line which reads “Forward they go” instead of “They go forward”. The reason behind this is that, the poet wants to stress the word “forward” to encourage people to continue with the struggle.

Qn 9.  What are the possible themes of the poem?

Answ: The possible themes of the poem are colonialism, exploitation, oppression, humiliation, awareness, protest and sacrifice.

{i} Colonialism.

Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it in all spheres of life such as politically, economically and socially. In this poem, the sons of the land are tired of colonial rule that is why they take an action to challenge their enemies.

{ii} Protest.

This is also one of the themes of this poem. Protest is a sign of dissatisfaction which can either be active or passive. In this poem the sons of the land wage an active protest against colonial rule. They protest through armed struggle as they believe it to be the only way out to solve their problems.

{iii} Awareness.

The sons of the land are aware that oppression, exploitation and colonialism are of no good to them; hence they want to liberate their land through armed struggle. If they were not aware, they could not take any action against it (Colonialism).

{iv} Sacrifice.

The term sacrifice can be simply defined as the fact of giving up something important or valuable to you in order to get or do something that seems more important. In this poem the sons of the land are seen to be ready to die fighting in liberation of their country from colonial domination. This is a true patriotism which should be emulated in the society.

{v} Armed struggle.

There is an armed struggle waged by the sons of the land against their enemies. This can well be proved in the poem when the persona says:

“Forward they go

Well armed.”

People had to use armed struggle as they find it the only way out to solve their problems such as exploitation, oppression and humiliation.

SUMMONS

POEM 2

POEM: HOLLOW HEADS

POET: JWANI MWAIKUSA.

Hollow Heads

Hollow heads torture me with ignorance,

Blind eyes harass me with darkness,

Deaf ears tire me with silence,

Dumb voices deafen me with gibberish,

Blank minds confuse me with emptiness,

And above all,

There is power and command.

 

With wits and ears and eyes,

I have speech and a strong mind,

But I remain weak and powerless,

They oppress me, they torture me,

They fight me, they kill me.

It’s a fight to bring me down to silence,

To darkness and gibberish, to ignorance,

And through brainwashing, to emptiness.

 

All right, my friends,

It’s a battle and I’ll fight it,

Ears and wits and eyes and speech,

And a strong conscience:

These are my weapons.

 

And I will fight to the last cell.

 

GUIDING QUESTIONS:

Qn 1. What is the poem all about?

Answ: the poem is about a person who complains about oppression and injustice done to him by the upper class. The persona is tired of being tortured and therefore, he decides to wage war against the enemies (the oppressors).

Qn 2. Who is the person speaking in the poem?

Answ: The person speaking in the poem is an oppressed and exploited man (common man). He is both aware and courageous enough to fight against the oppression, exploitation and injustice done to him, it shows that he is a member of a lower class. 

Qn 3. Does the persona fear the enemy?

Answ: No, the persona does not fear the enemy that is the reason why he is ready to fight against them to the last cell. The persona is very brave as he is ready to die fighting.

Qn 4. Who is the addressee of the poem?

Answ: The addressee of the poem is any oppressor, exploiter and humiliator. It can be the ruling class which oppress, exploit and humiliate its subjects.

Qn 5. What is the setting of this poem?

Answ: The setting of the poem can be any country in the world particularly African countries where evils such as humiliation and oppression are practiced to a greater extent.

Qn 6. What is the tone of the poem?

Answ: The tone of the poem is serious and unhappy. The persona is not happy with oppression, humiliation and exploitation done to him that is why he takes action of fighting against them to the last cell.     

Qn 7. What is the mood of the poem?

Answ: The mood of the poem is very sad; it makes us feel sympathy for the persona because of the problems he is experiencing. 

Qn 8. Is the poem relevant to your society?

Answ: yes, the poem is very relevant to my society due to the fact that the evils like oppression, exploitation and humiliation are found in my society especially the upper class exploiting the lower class people.

Qn 9. Comment on the use of figures of speech and musical devices. Answ: Figures of speech.

  • Hollow heads torture me with ignorance”
  • – “All right my friends”

The persona calls his enemies as “friends”

Musical devices.

  • Rhymes:- The word ignorance rhymes with silence.

The word darkness rhymes with emptiness.

  • Alliteration:- “Dumb voices deafen me with gibberish”

“I have speech and strong mind,”

The initial consonants d and s have been repeated in a poetic line.

  • Parallelism;- “They oppress me, they torture me,

                                   They fight me, they kill me”

Qn 10. What are the possible themes of this poem?

Answ: The possible themes of this poem include sacrifice, oppression, injustice, lack of democracy, protest, awareness (consciousness) and classes.

{i} Oppression.

In this poem, the persona is shown tortured and oppressed by those in power (Power and command), he is neither free to make decision nor is he having freedom to speech. Consider the following verses (lines) from the poem:

“They oppress me, they torture me,

                        They fight me, they kill me”

{ii} Lack of democracy.

There is no true democracy in this society shown in the poem. People like persona who tend to question evils found in the society, are tortured, oppressed and killed by the people in authority so that they could not bring the revolutionary ideas to the others. Lack of democracy can be realized in the poem when the persona says:

“They oppress me, they torture me,

                         They fight me, they kill me”

{iii} Awareness.

In this poem, the persona is aware that there are evils like oppression, torture and killings done by the people in power against him in particular and the other lower class people at large. Due to his awareness, he is ready to die fighting against the oppressors.

{iv} Sacrifice.

The persona is ready to sacrifice his life for the good of the society. He is very strong and courageous that is why he wages war against his enemies, he never fears them at all. The following quotation from the poem proves how the Persona sacrifices himself.      “And I will fight to the last cell.”

{v} Classes.

There are two major classes shown in this poem, the class of oppressors and the class of the oppressed. The oppressors use their political influence (power) to oppress, torture, fight and kill the oppressed people like the persona. The persona is not happy with this situation, therefore he decides to protest against it.

SUMMONS

POEM 3

 POEM: YOU ARE LOST

POET: ISAAC MRUMA

A Tanzanian poet and journalist.

You Are Lost

To you dada.

it’s the days that matter,

for we are unable to chat

in the language we had.

 

When I look at you

and see my pay-slip

in your eyes,

I feel empty

and sapped.

 

Your glance, sister,

is to me the measure

of the heat of the dough

in my pocket.

 

Never are passions cool,

to you I am now a tool,

and all my wage is now the fare:

I ride on your throbbing kisses.

 

It is you I accuse,

because your love is lost,

and you only touch me

with the tenderness that asks

where my wallet is.

 

It is to you dada,

that my pen tears the pad,

For I only see your love

focussed on my purse,

with your passions

chasing my bank account

SUMMONS

 GUIDING QUESTIONS:

Qn 1. What is the poem all about?

Answ: The poem is about a man complaining about a certain girl (dada) who seems to be involved in commercial sex. She is not having true love as she makes love for money.

Qn 2. Who is the person speaking in this poem?

Answ: The person speaking in this poem is a man with self-awareness and disgusted with dada’s behaviour of prostitution.

Qn 3.  To whom does the persona talk to? (Audience).

Answ: The persona talks to Dada (sister) who involves herself in commercial sex. The dada seems to be very fond of money that is why she decides to sell her body.

Qn 4. Does dada in this poem have a true love to the persona?

Answ: No, Dada does not have true love to the persona, she only loves him because of his money.

Qn 5.  Does the persona like dada’s behaviour?

Answ: No, the persona does not like dada’s behaviour that is why he discourages the commercial sex.

Qn 6. What is the tone of the poem?

Answ: The tone of the poem is both very sad and unhappy due to the fact that dada has been considering the persona as a sap ( a very stupid person) and means of income.

Qn 7. What is the setting of the poem?

Answ: The setting of the poem can be any country in the world particularly African countries in urban areas where commercial sex (prostitution) is conducted to a greater extent.

Qn 8. Comment on the various uses of figures of speech and musical devices.

Answ: Figures of speech

(a) Personification – “…the tenderness that asks…”

                                 “…your passions chasing my bank account”

(b) Metaphor-   “to you I am now a tool,”

In the above quotation, the persona compares himself with a tool; this shows how the persona is used by dada as a means of income.

(c) Barbarism. This is a word or expression formed from elements of different languages.

For example the statement “To you dada.” is formed from English and Swahili words. The persona has used barbarism for the sake of showing emphasis of his point.

Musical devices

-Rhymes   Eg.- The word cool rhymes with tool.

Qn 9. What are the themes found in this poem?

Answ: The themes found in this poem are Prostitution, hypocrisy, awareness, exploitation, poverty and position of women in society.

{i} Prostitution.

This is simply the act of having sex for money. In this poem, dada is shown to have no true love as she engages in commercial sex. She only loves the persona because of money. This is shown in the poem when the persona complains.

For I only see your love

                focussed on my purse…,”

{ii} Hypocrisy.

The dada in this poem is represented as hypocrite, she only loves the persona because of his money and when it happens that the persona is bankrupt, the love ceases between them.  The following quotation proves dada’s hypocrisy in the poem:

“…and you only touch me

                                     with the tenderness that asks

                                     where my wallet is.”

{iii} Awareness.

This is another theme found in this poem. The persona is aware that dada does not have true love to him, he knows quite well that dada is using him as a tool that is why he is no longer interested in her. This is shown in the poem when the persona says:

It is you I accuse,

                            because your love is lost,”

{iv} Poverty.

This is also discussed in this poem; dada is shown engaging in commercial sex due to poverty. She sells her body so as to get money which could help her to meet her basic needs. Prostitution is a bad practice which speeds up the spread of Hiv/Aids therefore it should be discouraged with all our efforts.

{v} Position of women in society.

This is another theme represented in this poem. A woman in this poem is shown as a tool of entertainment. For example dada engages in commercial sex so as to fulfill men’s sexual desires. She is used by men to entertain them by making love with them and pays her some money to meet her basic needs.

SUMMONS

POEM 4

 POEM: LOST BEAUTY

POET: JWANI MWAIKUSA

Lost Beauty

There are only white women around:

Awful fakes of white females

Reflecting an awful mass of ugliness:

And I want a lady

To mount the rostrum with

And declare to the world:

“Black is beautiful!”

 

Yes,

I want a black beauty queen

With ebony thighs and huge hips

With skin sweating blackness

And a face dark as the night

And bare breasts bouncing

Vigour and energy.

 

But my eyes, oh my eyes!

They don’t see anything black;

It’s only white skins and masks

Flashing past and slashing,

Destroying my sight so

I can’t get what I want.

 

I cry and sing to them

The inbred tune of our people,

I shout to them in the black tongue

But no black sister hears me;

Only white masks I see.

 

I turn and weep upon myself

And then, only then I realise:

I am not black either.

 

GUIDING QUESTIONS:

 Qn 1. What is the poem all about?

Answ: The poem is all about the influence of Western culture among the Africans. In this poem, an individual (a person) is shown complaining about his black sisters who seem to ignore their African culture due to the influence of the Western culture.

Qn 2. Who is the person speaking in this poem?

Answ: The person speaking in this poem is an African man who is proud of being an African that is why he wants to marry a black woman with whom they will declare that black is beautiful.

Qn 3. To whom does the persona talk to?

Answ: The persona talks to his black sisters who have lost their beauty (African origin) following the influence of the Western culture.

Qn 4. What is the tone of the poem?

Answ: The tone of the poem is sad, disappointed and mockery. The persona is very sad and disappointed to find that he cannot get what he wants (the lost African beauty). He fails to get a black beauty queen as most of them now turn to be the awful fakes (photocopy) of white females. There is a mocking tone when the poet calls the African women “the awful fakes of white females” or “white masks”.

Qn 5. What is the mood of the poem?

Answ: The mood of the poem is both depressing and disgusting. The mood makes us feel disgusted with the behaviour of some Africans to kow-tow to western culture such as dressing style, eating style and language to mention just a few.

 Qn 6. What is the setting of the poem?

Answ: The setting of the poem can be any third world country particularly African countries like Tanzania in urban areas where majority Africans seem to be completely corrupted (affected) by the influence of the Western culture.

 Qn 7. Comment on the use of figures of speech and musical devices.

Answ: Musical devices.

(a) Alliteration– “…Black is beautiful!”

                        “I want a black beauty queen…”

(b) Reiteration —“..But my eyes, oh my eyes!..”

Figures of speech.

Simile-       “…And a face dark as the night..”

Qn 8. What are the themes found in this poem?

Answ: The themes found in this poem are Patriotism, betrayal, ignorance, awareness, disappointment, position of women in the society as well as the influence of Western culture to the Africans. 

{i} Patriotism.

Refers to the feelings of loving your country (continent) and willingness to defend it against an enemy. The poet in this poem stresses the need of Africans to preserve and defend their culture from other cultures. For example, the persona in this poem finds no reason as to why black women use cosmetics to change their natural black skin and become white. He wants a natural black woman as he says:

“Yes,

                                           I want a black beauty queen

                                           With ebony thighs and huge hips

                                           With skin sweating blackness”

{ii} Awareness.

This is another theme portrayed in this poem. The persona is shown having awareness that a person should be proud of his or her nationality no matter what colour you are. He wants to liberate his black sisters from cultural domination; he is also not ashamed of his black colour as he says:

                                           “And I want a lady

                                            To mount the rostrum with

                                            And declare to the world:

                                           “Black is beautiful!”

{iii} Betrayal.

Betrayal means lack of loyalty to somebody or something. In this poem, the poet shows that some African women have betrayed their culture as they no longer want to appear black, they use various cosmetics to change their skin colour and look the same as white. This is evidenced in the poem when the persona complains:

                                      “But my eyes, oh my eyes!

                                       They don’t see anything black;

                                       It’s only white skins and masks…..”

{iv} Ignorance.

This is also another theme discussed by the poet in this poem. Some of the African ladies (women) seem to ignore their culture (dignity) and start glorifying the Whiteman’s culture. They think that the Whiteman is superior to blacks that is why they abandon their culture and imitate the Whiteman’s culture. Consider the following verses from the fourth stanza of the poem:

                                           “I shout to them in the black tongue

                                            But no black sister hears me;

                                            Only white masks I see.”

{v} The influence of the Western culture to the Africans.

This is one of the most important themes found in this poem. It is due to this subject matter that the beauty of Africa has lost as most of the African women have now changed to white. The influence of the western culture also seems having effects on the persona, consider the last stanza of this poem when the persona says:

                                           “I turn and weep upon myself

                                            And then, only then I realise:

                                            I am not black either.”

SUMMONS

POEM 5

POEM: BUILDING THE NATION

POET: Christopher H. M. Barlow (Uganda)

Today I did my share

In building the nation.

I drove the permanent secretary

To an important urgent function

In fact to a luncheon at the Vic.

The menu reflected its importance

Cold Bell beer with small talk,

Then fried chicken with niceties

Wine to fill the hollowness of the laughs

Ice-ream to cover the stereotype jokes

Coffee to keep the PS awake on return journey.

I drove the permanent secretary back.

He yawned many times in the back of the car

Then to keep awake, he suddenly asked,

Did you have any lunch friend?

I replied looking straight ahead

And secretly smiling at his belated concern

That I had not, but was sliming!

Upon which he said with seriousness

That amused more than annoyed me,

Mwananchi, I too had none!

I attended to matters of state.

Highly delicate diplomatic duties you know,

And friend, it goes against my grain,

Causes me stomach ulcers and wind.

Ah, he continued, yawning again,

The pains we suffer in building the nation!

So the PS had ulcers too!

My ulcers I think are equally painful

Only they are caused by hunger,

No sumptuous lunches!

So two nation builders

Arrived home this evening

With terrible stomach pains

The result of building the nation –

Different ways.

 INTRODUCTION

Building the nation is a poem by a Ugandan poet Christopher Henry Muwanga Barlow that principally explores the lifestyle of African bourgeoisie who came to power after colonialism and ideally, simply replaced the coloniser. There is a need for African leaders to create hope for those they lead but they are caught up in the same evil lifestyle of their colonial predecessors. The aspects of nation building which were supposed to dominate public and political policies have been thrust to the periphery of human thought.

THEMATIC ANALYSIS.

DISILLUSIONMENT

This refers to the state in which a person is disappointed because the person you admired or idea you believed to be good and true now seems to have no value and cannot attain your goals. The kind of disillusionment portrayed in the poem is that which Africans have towards their leaders who have adopted the very tenets of the colonisers from whom they got power. Essentially, the idea of nation building turns out to be a very complicated phenomenon where those who are central to the process have their efforts wasted by leaders who can implement policies.

The persona shows more disillusionment by stating that at the meeting “the menu reflected its importance/ Cold Bell beer with small talks/ Then fried chicken with niceties/ wine…/ ice cream …/coffee… (lines 6-11). This reflects the triviality of a meeting where serious issues were supposed to be discussed.

LIES AND HYPOCRISY

This refers to the behaviour in which somebody pretends to have moral standard or opinions that they do not actually have. This has been a vital tool for most politicians when they want to win more votes from their ignorant masses. They make heaps of lies on the optimistic crowds but eventually everything turns out only a nightmare. The PS lies to the driver that he did not have any meal just as did the driver yet you and I know that he had a very heavy and sumptuous lunch.

He even shows his hypocrisy more clearly when he asks this question. “then to keep awake he suddenly asked/Did you have any lunch friend?”. It is rather sad to note that he does not ask whether the driver has eaten anything because he is concerned about his welfare, but it is simply to keep himself awake through the journey.

CLASSES

This refers to the structure of divisions in a society determined by the social or economic grouping of its members. It is also a system that divides members of the society into sets based on perceived social or economic status. In a broader way the poem thoroughly depicts two classes in one society. There is middle class and lower class. Both of them are supposed to mutually benefit from the national resources.

Yet the middle class that is represented by the PS exploits the lower class that more often than not comprises those who are involved in the modes of production. For example the driver drives the PS to the place where there is feasting (eating) while the driver does not take part in the feasting. The role of both classes is building the nation, but the middle class has just become the parasites who feed on the national resources at the expense of the masses. They are not building the nation at all but building their stomachs.

MARGINALIZATION AND EXPLOITATION

Furthermore in the poem, the two parties represent the two strands of nation builders that are in most African states. On one side there are those represented by the driver (the local masses) while on the other hand we have high class being represented by the PS.

The later is very busy misquandering the public funds which can be used to rebuild the nations. The masses are the hardworking people whose benevolence is easily taken for granted by those in power. There are those who eat extravagantly and those who work on empty stomachs. The persona himself comes from the marginalized class. His disillusionment is caused by lifestyles of African leaders and informs his fellow countrymen what is actually happening.

AWARENESS

This can simply be defined as the knowledge that someone has about something good or bad that is existing within the society together within the society together with its advantages and disadvantages. The poem paints a picture of awareness that those who are oppressed are now aware that those in power are exploiting them.

This is an important step as long as the liberation of the oppressed is concerned. It is also a significant step if the nation is to realise sustainable development where the national resources will be mutually utilized for the benefit of not only the ruling class but the masses as well. If we examine the end of the poem it seems to induce a kind of anger that should lead to vengeance (revenge). The persona is appealing to the oppressed to rise to the occasion and deal with the ruling class.

The fact that “two nation builders/ arrived home this evening/with terrible stomach pain/the result of building the nation/different ways” is more like an appeal to emotions where the persona seeks actions from the masses.

In a way, the persona calls for a reaction towards the ruling class’s hypocritical nation building where they pretend to have welfare of the masses at heart while in real sense they just want to capitalize on their efforts.

 VULNERABILITY OF HUMANITY

Nevertheless, the persona seems to have hopes in some facts that both the African bourgeoisie and the proletariats have their points of vulnerability. They both suffer in one way or another because of their own actions and lifestyles. For instance the driver becomes sick because of lack of food while the PS becomes sick for eating too much.

So Ps has ulcers too!

My ulcers I think are equally painful

Only they are caused by hunger,

No sumptuous lunches!

 MESSAGE

  • If we wish to do well in nation building we must as public servants respect everything that belongs to the state; money, property, working hours etc.
  • If the high class is not careful with nation building one day the oppressed may revolt.

 RELEVANCE

The poem is relevant in our country in a number of ways.

Today we have a lot of leaders who misuse the public funds while those who are involved in the means of production live in dire poverty.

Hypocrisy has also become a way of life.

Classes, exploitation and marginalization are also major issues in our society.

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

What is the poem about?

The poem is about the concept of nation building as taken by African bourgeoisie class who came to power after colonialism. The poet shows that independence was just the change in colour but the leaders adopted the very tenets of their predecessors.

Who is the persona? How do you know?

The persona is a driver who represents the low class.

In line 3 he says “I drove the permanent secretary”

Suggest some literary and poetic devices used in the poem.

Alliteration

Highly delicate diplomatic duties..

And secretly smiling…

Cold Bell beer

Barbarism

Mwananchi, I too had none!

Onomatopoeia

Ah, he continued yawning again.

This is the sound of yawning

Satire

To an important urgent function

In fact to a luncheon at the Vic.

Lunch is called an important urgent function, this is very satirical

Irony. The title of the poem ‘Building the Nation” is ironical because the guys in the poem were not building the nation.

Why did the PS ask the question “Did you have any lunch friend?”

He asked the question just to keep himself awake throughout the journey and not because he is concerned by the welfare of the driver.

What is the tone of the poem?

The tone is both sad and ironical/satirical

The poet says in the last stanza ‘so two nation builders arrived home this evening’ were the two people building the nation?. Not really. The poet uses this as a satire to criticise the idea that people always claim to build the nation but they end up building their stomachs.

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