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THE COMING PORTUGUESE IN EAST AFRICA

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THE COMING PORTUGUESE IN EAST AFRICA

THE COMING PORTUGUESE IN EAST AFRICA

PORTUGUESE INVATION: When Portuguese explorers arrived in East Africa in 1498 (Vasco Da Gama), Swahili trade communities had thrived for several centuries along the Swahili Coast and outlying islands.

The trading between Africa and Asia was disturbed by Portuguese invasion along the East African coast in the 15th Century. The Portuguese attempted to capture and control Indian Ocean trade, this lead to war between the Portuguese and the indigenous of East African coast. During this contact the most important countries in western were Spain and Portugal.

These countries were included in trade through trading routes to India which passed off through Italy and the Muslims lands of the Middle East particularly Turkey. The occurrence of wars in Muslims empire made the trade difficult and more expensive. The Portuguese by finding routes of the sea wanted to establish trading empire in the East Africa by controlling all trades in Europe.

Vasco da Gama was the first Portuguese to reach East Africa in 1498. Bartholomew Diaz reached  the Cape of Good Hope in south Africa in 1488.

THE COMING PORTUGUESE IN EAST AFRICA

Portuguese Invation In East Africa Why Portuguese Search For New Sea Route To India Via To Africa?

VASCO DA GAMA

ECONOMIC MOTIVES

AIMS FOR PORTUGUESE INVATION IN EAST AFRICA

1. Searching for markets

The portuguese aimed at searching for cheapes markets for selling their commoditiea produced in Europe. Therefore they wanted to defeat the Asian trades and rules in their monopoly of the India trade. usually European countries admired the commodities founded in Africa so in order to get them they had to contact with African people.

2. Searching for raw materials

The Portuguese needed varieties of raw materials which were Ivory, tortoise’s shells, cotton, gold and palms.

3. To exploit African resources

Especially natural resource like mineral agricultual commodities and slaves in East African coastal cities and states Example: Kilwa, Mombasa, Bagamoyo and Mogadishu.

4. Searching for sea route to Asia

The Portuguese aimed aimed at searching for sea route to India due to the existence of political instability in the middle east it has made Portuguese to find the alternative way to Asia.

5. Searching areas for investment

The Portuguese aimed at searching for potential areas for investment of their surplus production.

SOCIAL MOTIVES

6. To spread Christianity.

7. They desired to establish anti-Muslims alliances.

8. They wanted to meet with Pastor John in Ethiopia.

THE EXPANSION OF PORTUGUESE RULE IN EAST AFRICA

By 15th C Portuguese succeeded to establish their rule in East Africa. After that the Portuguese built the Fort Jesus in Mombasa which could strengthen their military power thus establishing the effective control over the East Africa coastal areas.

1592 was the built of Fort Jesus.

1698 was the broke down of Fort Jesus.

1499 was the year when Vasco da Gama returned back to Portugal.

Other forts built by Portuguese in Africa were:-

i. Fort at Kilwa in 1505.

ii. Sofala (Mozambique) in 1480

iii. The Elimina caste (Ghana) built in 1482.

Why Portuguese search for sea route to India via to Africa?

Answer:

1. Presence of political conflict in the middle east under the Ottoman Empire.

2. Presence of religious war in the middle east (Muslim agaist non muslims) jihad wars.

3. High taxes imposed by Ottoman Empire in Turkey

Portuguese Invation In East Africa Portuguese Invation In East Africa The Early Contact Between Africa And Middle East And Far Esat (7Th C-15Th C.)

MPACT PORTUGUESE INTRUSION IN EAST AFRICA

ECONOMIC IMPACTS

1. Introduction of new crops: especially cash crops in Africa e.g. Sugarcane, yellow maize, cassava, rice, pineapples, potatoes etc.

2. Decline of trade: the trade between East Africa, Far East and Middle East was interrupted by the Portuguese.

3. Introduction of slave trade.

4. Exposed Africa to the external world.

5. They built several forts in Africa example Fort Jesus of Mombasa 1592.

6. It has led to intensive exploitation of African resources.

SOCIAL IMPACTS

1. Decline of cities and states.

2. Growth of Swahili language: Swahili adapted some new Portuguese words i.e. Mvinyo from word Vincho, Meza Etc.

3. Insecurity, due to slave trade.

4. Loss of manpower.

5. It led to destruction of African culture.

REASONS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF PORTUGUESE IN EAST AFRICA

1. They suffered from tropical disease like malaria.

2. The climate conditions of East African coast were in healthy for the Portuguese.

3. Social, culture and religion differences. These include Muslim against Christians.

4. Loss of trade due to Portuguese taxes and restrictions.

5. Harsh treatments and punishment practiced by Portuguese in their leadership.

6. Role played by Oman to the coastal city people. Hence that capture of fort Jesus marked the end of Portuguese in East Africa around 1700.

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