THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL (1948) AND THE PALESTINIAN
UNO’S motives to divide Palestine (1947) Impact of the declaration of the independence of new state of Israel. Causes and outcomes of the Arab-Jenish wars. Camp David and the Egyptian-Israel Peace (1978 -1979) between Israel and PLO.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PALESTINIAN
The origin of the problem went back almost 2,000 years when most of the Jewish were driven out of Palestine which was their homeland by Romans.
In fact, small communities of Jews stayed in Palestine and over the following 1700 years there was a gradual trickle of Jews returning from exile. The movement of Jesus to return to their land of Palestine is known as Zionism.
Therefore Zionism represents itself as a political movement concerned principally with the establishment of Jewish state in Palestine. British Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour in 1917 promised to create a none for the Jew in “Balfour Declaration” Palestine became a British mandate to replace ottoman Empire which was suppressed during the first world war. Therefore large numbers of Jesus began to arrive in Palestine and Arabs protests greatly the exodus of Jewish settlement.
UNO’S MOTIVES TO DEVIDE PALESTINE (1947)
UNO implemented the partition plan of Palestine in 1947 in order to create the state of Israel The key objective of UNO to divide Palestine to reconcile peace among the Palestine Arabs an the Jewish Further more UN also was sympathized by the mass genocide of Jews by Adolf Hitler in Germany therefore creation of the Jewish state was an attempt to rescue the Jews from mistreatment.
IMPACTS OF DECLARATION OF NEW STATEOF ISRAEL (1948)
i. It led to the growth of conflict between Palestinians Arabs and the Jewish due to the land question.
ii. Emergence of suicide bombing attacks to the Jewish by the Palestinian Arabs.
iii. Interference of USA and the western country to the Middle East politics and diplomacy. Mostly they intend to mediate/are conciliate are bring peace but internally to defend the Jews.
iv. Formation of ant-Jews organization and military wings. These were formed by the Palestinians to foster liberation movement e.g.: P.L.O.
v. Officially it ended the British man dale over Palestine.
ARAB –JEWISH WARS (1956 -1973)
These wars were the manifestation of inherent conflict between the Arabs nations and the Jewish due to the question of land on Palestine. On the other land the Jewish were on the defense motive to restore their land which they grabbed from the Palestinians.
CAUSES OF ARABS – JEWISH WARS.
1. Proclamation of Israel state (1947) (1948) implemented
The united nation resolved the decision to divide Palestine and declared the independent state of Israel. There fare the Arab would denied the existence of Israel state on Arab land hence the act break of the wars.
2. Jewish expansion on Arab land
The influx of Jewish settlers began during the rule of British on Palestine therefore before British withdraw all from Palestine, Jewish invaded Tiberias (April 19, 1948), Haifa (April Jaffa (April 28), The Arab quarters in Jerusalem (April 30), Beisan (May 3) Safad (May 10) and Acre (May 14)
3. External force, Arab –Jewish war was influenced by external forced. These forces involved the big nation fore example USSR and (Czechoslovakia provided weapons to Arab countries while USA Britain and France provided weapons to Jewish.
4. Religious factor, most of the Arabs are Muslims while the Jewish. Are Christians. The Arabs believe in Jihad, the holy war to defend Muslims and Island and the Jewish believe in crusade war. There fore conflict was inevitable.
5. Racism, Jews believe that they are superior race chosen by God and have the rights to dominate all interior race hence conflict. And on the other hand the Arabs land is an insult to their race hence they declared to defend the Palestinian Arabs.
IMPACTS OF ARAB-JEWISH WARS.
1. Death. Many people in the Middle East died due to several attacks from both sides, many Jews and Arabs died.
2. The grab of Arab wealth by the Jews. Jews took an advantage of the war to grab Arab wealth during the war, these included livestock’s and minerals.
3. Displacement of Arab settlement. Most of the Palestinian Arabs lost their land in the hand of Jews Eg: West bank Gaza 4. Increase of number of refugees, there was increasing number of refugees because most of the Palestinian. Arabs left their lands to the neighboring countries. (About 711,000 refugees). Eg: In Jordan
4. Disintegration of United Arab front opposition to Israel. After the war many Arab nations started to disintegrate to oppose Israel. For example Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel (Camp David).
3. Destruction of Arab economy, buildings and infrastructures were totally destroyed.
CAMP DAVID AND EGYPTIAN ISRAEL PEACE TREAT (1978 -79)
Through the 1970’s Arab –Israel negotiations continued to dominate the agenda of Middle East International Politics. The United States, seeing the effects that Arabs Israel conflict could have on world economy pressed for solution to the conflict.
The camp David refers to the reconcile on the issue of middle east crisis Factor which led to the peace agreement were the frequent wars between the Jews and the Arabs. During the camp David many Arabs nations refused to attend the agreements at camp David, but support of the agreements The support of Egypt led to the 1978 peace treaty between Israel and Arabs.
AGREEMENTS OF EGYPTIAN –JEWS PEACE TREATY.
1. Israel agreed to return Sinai to Egypt, during the war Jewish conquer the land in Egypt as the result Egypt wanted back her land and was affected in 1982 when the land was returned to Egypt.
2. Also they had to negotiate Palestinian autonomy measures in the Israel occupied west Bank and Gaza strip.
3. They had to reconcile Egyptian Israel diplomatic relations. They agreed to establish diplomatic relationship among them
IMPACT OF THE CAMP DAVID AGREEMENTS
i. If led to the division of Arab statee.g. Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt become close to Western countries and USA
ii. Camp David did not become the basis for comprehensive settlement of Arab Israel conflict.
iii. It led to the reduction of conflict among Arabic and Jewish. That means the consequence was to radically alter the strategic balance in Arab –Israel conflict.
iv. Increase of confidence to Israel. Started to gain confidence due to the decrease of Arab opposition.
v. Camp David cemented the US-Egyptian relationship and isolated Soviet Union in the Middle East.
4.The LDC s have formed regional and inter regional groups like Arab league, COMESA ECOWAS, EAC etc. for the aim of strengthening and widening their market, organizing labor within their nations and cooperating in different economic activity.
5.Promotion of Cooperation ventures in cultural and sport fields such as African cap of Nation (LAF) all African games and the confederation of Africa football.
6.Creation of different financial institutions to assist the LDC s in financial problems like creation of the bank of Africa and other endogenous banks in order to reduce reliance on foreign financial institution.
7.They have established integrated self sustaining national economy like what Uganda and Libya have done.
8.They adopted African maximum, Leninism and socialism in steady of capitalism as what some African leaders argued that the aim of African Socialism was to create socialism of Africa which could reflect African way of life during communalism and use the resource available in Africa for the development of African countries.
9. Some countries in the LDC s have developed their own military technology in order to reduce dependence from the developed world military e.g. North Korea, Pakistan, India and Iran are suspected to have nuclear weapon plants.