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With vivid examples explain the reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

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the reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

With vivid examples explain the reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

The Portuguese rule in East Africa

Before Portuguese invasion Africans had contact with Asia where by Africans got different commodities from Asia as well as Asia took different items from Africa.

But later trade was disturbed by Portuguese along the East African coast during the 16th c. The Portuguese started to control Indian Ocean trade, but indigenous of East African coast did not remain silent, where by indigenous started to resist Portuguese invasion.

In 1498 Vasco da Gama penetrated the Indian Ocean with a small fleet of four ships and after a brief stay over at what was to become Maputo he journeyed on to the Island of Mozambique where he made his first contact with Swahili culture (Ferreira 2007, 151; Crawfurd 2002).

Setting a pattern that was to characterize Portuguese behaviour in the Indian Ocean, he repaid the kindness and hospitality of his Muslim hosts by plundering the settlement and bombarding it from the sea before he set off armed with information to complete his voyage to the Indies, with which they had supplied him (Crawfurd 2002; For more information see Tanzania: Portuguese dominance (1500-1698CE)).

Between his return in 1500 and 1510 the Portuguese managed to seize control of the East African littoral from the Swahili and establish hegemony over the trade routes that crossed the Indian Ocean through ruthless military operations carried out with crusader zeal against their Muslim opponents (Gilbert 2002; Crawfurd 2002).

They captured Goa and Diu in the north-east of India and Hormuz in the Persian Gulf and Sofala, Kilwa and Mombasa on the African East coast; the later was strongly fortified (Gilbert 2002).

They began fortifying Sofala in 1505 and the Island of Mozambique in 1507, setting up a trading station at Cabo Delgado (Columbia Encyclopaedia 2007; ISS Undated).

Goa was made centre for the Indian Ocean vice-royalty and Mombasa that for north-eastern operations while the base of operations in the southern Indian Ocean was moved from Sofala to the Island of Mozambique because the latter provided superior anchorage; Sofala remained an important trading centre for some time but declined steadily as the Island of Mozambique flourished (Ferreira 2007; ISS Undated).

The fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

During this contact the most important countries in western were Spain and Portugal. These countries were included in trade through trading routes to India which passed off through Italy and the Muslims lands of the Middle East.

But due to the occurrence of wars in Muslims empire made the trade difficult and more expensive. Therefore Portuguese started to find routes of the sea in order to establish trading empire in the East for the aim of controlling all trades in Europe. This was made possible by the invention of ships.

The fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

The reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

Due to poor climatic conditions, Portuguese rule come to an end in East Africa because they suffered from tropical disease example malaria, which killed Portuguese to the large extent and most of them were physically weakened which make then to fail to stand still for the long period of fighting.

Due to the loss of their monopoly in trade, these make the years of Portuguese in East Africa numbered, this was after British and Dutch East India Company replacing the Portuguese traders on the Eastern shores of Indian Ocean. This cause the Portugal fail to collect revenue due to the decline of trade.

Lack of experienced and well educated officials, Portugal was unable to provide enough man power in the East Africa region, also there were few number of soldiers to support the empire as well as despite of having few officials in the coast but those few officials were harsh, corrupt, ruthless and inefficient for their duties. This cause the failure of Portuguese in East Africa.

The fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.

Due to the constant resistances, this is another reasons for the fall of Portuguese in East Africa were by Portugal challenged by African Local people, Arabs and their fellow Europeans. Example Turkey attacked the coast of East Africa in 1588, also the serious attack were in 1622, in 1697 the Omanis were strong enough to surround fort Jesus but Portuguese refuse to surrender, on 12th December 1698 Arabs were able to break into fort Jesus and this marked the end of Portuguese rule in East Africa.

Role played by Oman to the coastal people, Omanis and other nations supported indigenous people to oppose Portuguese empire. Example in 1652 an Oman fleet sailed in Zanzibar coast and Pate Therefore this made them to capture fort Jesus and marked the end of Portuguese in East Africa.

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