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EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

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EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

The  partition  was  influenced  by  a  number  of  factors  as  follows.

The development of commercial rivalries.

These rivalries involved German East Africa Company (GEACO) and Imperial British East African Company (IBEACO). Each company wanted to monopolize trade and commerce in East Africa, hence the division of East Africa.

Conflict between Anglican missionaries and Catholics in Uganda.

Anglican missionaries  informed  their  mother  country( Britain)  about  the  interference  of  Catholics  in  Uganda  and  the  reluctant  of  Kabaka Mutesa who  did  not  allow  them  in  Later  on  after  the  arrival  of  the  Germans  under  Karl  Peters  in  East  Africa, the  Catholic  missionaries  preferred  Uganda  to  be  in  the  hands  of  the  Germans  and  not  the  British  Anglican  missionaries.

Therefore they supported  the  Germans  under  Karl  Peter  to  sign  a  treaty  with  Kabaka Mutesa. This led  to  stiff  conflict  between Britain, France  and  German  hence  partition  of  East  Africa.

Early Belgian Empire at Congo.

There was  early  establishment  of  Belgian  Empire  by  king  Leopard  II  from  the  lower  Congo  to  the  coast  of  East  King  Leopard  wanted  to  expand  his  Empire  from  lower  Congo  to  the  coast   of  East  Africa. This  antagonized  the  British  and  Germans  who  were  already  in  the  region  hence  partition  of  East  Africa.

The arrival of Karl Peters in East Africa.

Karl Peters arrived  in  East  Africa  in  the  1880’s  to  sign  treaties  with  African  local  This jeopardized  the  British  interest  in  Africa, something  which  led  to  the  partition  of  East  Africa.

Economic strategies of East Africa.

Presence of  economic  strategies  like  lakes  and  source  of  River  Nile  attracted  both  the  Germans  and  the  This  led to  intensive  controversy, something  which  resulted  into  partition  of  East  Africa.

Presence of Treaties.

Both the  Germans  and  British  had  signed  different  treaties  with  Africans  rulers  in  the  region  up  to  These  treaties  resulted  into  contradiction  between  IBEACO  and  GEACO  officials  a  thing  which  resulted  to  partition  of  East  Africa.

Investment (influence) in East Africa.

East Africa had been  invested  by  Europeans  mainly  the  British  even  before  the  Berlin  e.g. Abolition  of  Slave trade  in  Zanzibar  and  the  establishment  of  Mission  centers. This led to the division of East Africa after the arrival of German.

THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

STAGES IN THE PARTITION PROCESS OF EAST AFRICA

The partition process of  East  Africa  began  in  the  Berlin  conference ( 1884 – 1885)  and  it  was   completed  with  the  partition  between  Germany  and  Britain  which  took  place  between1886s – 1890s. The  partition  between  German  and  Britain  was  completed  in  two  stages  of  agreement  between  them.

In East Africa, there was stiff antagonism between:

  • Germany
  • Britain
  • Sultan of Zanzibar

STAGES

The two stages in the partition of East Africa were: –

  1. Anglo – Germany agreement (1886)
  2. Anglo – Germany agreement (1890)

ANGLO – GERAMAN AGREEMENT (1886) (DELIMITATION TREATY)

It was an agreement (treaty) between Germany and Britain and the Sultan of Zanzibar the area of East Africa.

REASONS FOR HOLDING THE DELIMITATION TREATY

Presentation of treaty by Karl Peters.

On 5th Feb 1885, Karl Peters presents his treaty to Bismarck and President Kaiser William I in Berlin. Then he  was  granted  a  charter ( imperial)  that  stated  that “ any  area  visited  by  him  was  to  come  under  German  colonization, hence  led  to  formation of  Therefore, this  led  to  stiff  contradiction  with  IBEACO  who  claimed  that  East  Africa  was  its  area  of  influence hence, Delimitation  Treaty.

German recognition of Karl Peter’s treaty.

The Sultan  appealed  to  Sir  John  Kirk ( A British  Consul  in  South Africa) for  This led to the Anglo – German treaty of

Companies interference.

The British and German  companies  interfered  each  other  especially  in  commerce  and  treaty  making, hence Anglo – German  treaty  of

THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

RESOLUTIONS/ TERMS OF THE DELIMTATION TREATY (1886)

The Anglo German agreement (1886) had the following resolutions: –

German and Britain recognized  the  Sultan  spheres  of  influence which were to be Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mogadishu, Brava, Mafia and  10  miles  of  the  coastal

Germany and British spheres  of  influences  were  to  be  divided  by  Lake

The territory of Britain was  to  expand  northward  to  Tana  River

The territory of Germany  was  to  expand  South  wards  to  Ruvuma  River

Britain agreed to support German’s claims to establish a custom -house at Dar es Salaam.

Britain agreed to recognize Germany possession of Witu (a small market town in the Lamu County of Kenya, East Africa. Formerly it was the capital of the Witu Sultanate)

ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENT 1890 (HELGOLAND TREATY)

Refers to the second German agreement with the Britain over East Africa. The treaty was signed in 1890. The  treaty  was  held  due  to  various  contradictions  that  arose  after  the  delimitation  treaty. The main contradictions were Germany possession of Witu and the 10 miles coastal strip of the Sultan.

REASONS FOR ANGLO – GERMAN TREATY 1890

German wanted to establish a protectorate in Zanzibar  and  eliminate

German wanted  to  occupy  the  island  of  Helgoland  in  the  North  She  wanted  to  establish  a  naval  base.

A treaty between  Kabaka Mwanga  and  Karl    In  Jan  1890, Kabaka Mwanga  signed  a  treaty  of  protectorate  with  Karl  Peters  that  placed  Buganda  in  the  hands  of  the  Germans. By  then, Britain  had  already  colonized  Egypt, Britain did  not  want  the  source  of River  Nile  to  be  under  other  powers. This led  to  Anglo – German  agreement  1890.

Britain wanted the  Sultan  to  cede  to  the  Germans  the  10  miles  coasted

THE REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

TERMS/ RESOLUTIONS OF ANGLO-GERMAN AGREENMENT OF 1890

The Sultan  agreed  to  cede  the  coastal  strips  to  the  Germans  for  the equivalent  of  two  hundred  thousand

German agreed  to  abandon  all  claims  of  Witu  island ( North  of  Britain  sphere)

Tanganyika mainland, Uhutu  and  Utusi  become  German  sphere  of  influence

Zanzibar, Pemba, Kenya and  Uganda  become  British  sphere  of

IMPACTS OF ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENTS OF 1890

Dar es Salaam  and  Mombasa  become  important  main  ports  linked  by  railways

From 1890  and  1894  Zanzibar  and  Uganda  were  under  British  control

Tanganyika was  under  German  rule  by  1900

German bought  the  coastal  strip  from  the  Zanzibar

These treaties culminated  colonialism  in  East

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