Pines are among the most well- known coniferous trees in the world. They
thrive in temperate mountainous regions, but can also survive in
tropical spots in the northern hemisphere. Pines live relatively long
time than other coniferous plants. They may live between 100 and 1,000
The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin,
flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular whorls appearing like
a ring of branches arising from the same point.
A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct
borders between each ring. The center of the stem is called pith. These
rings are called annual rings because they grow seasonally and they help
a plant to undergo secondary thickening.
Generally adult pines have
needle-shaped leaves which are green and photosynthetic. The leaves are
in bundles or clusters. The leaves (cotyledons) on seedlings are borne
in a whorl of 4â€“24.
Juvenile leaves, which follow immediately after
seedlings, have single, green leaves arranged spirally on the shoot.
They also have non- photosynthetic scale leaves, similar to bud scales.
They are arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves.
A cone is an organ of pines that contains the reproductive structures.
The woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones,
which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
The advantages and disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta