Home HISTORY TOPIC 1: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM | HISTORY FORM 3

TOPIC 1: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM | HISTORY FORM 3

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ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM

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TOPIC 1: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM | HISTORY FORM 3

What is colonialism?

Colonialism: refers to the situation where by one powerful country extend its domination over the weak country socially, politically and economically.

The development of capitalism in Europe has led to the development of the industrial revolution which started in Britain in 1750 and by the end of the18th century Britain was the only industrialized nation in the world.

However by the 19th century, other European countries such as France, Belgium, Germany and Italy also industrialized.

Industrialization of almost all European countries meant that there was no area to expand within European hence there was the need to find colonies for meeting industrial demands.

CAPITALISM

Capitalism: is the fourth mode of production which characterized by private ownership of the major means of production. Normally under capitalism the major means of production such land, tractor, capital and transport means are owned by the few people or individual person.

STAGES OF CAPITALISM DEVELOPMENT

Normally the development of capitalism passed through three major stages and each stage has its own key features:-

Mercantilism 1450-1750.

Industrial capitalism 1750-1850.

Monopoly capitalism/ imperialism 1850’s.

STAGES/PROCESSES OF COLONIZATION OF AFRICA

Normally the colonization of Africa passed in three major phases which include,

  • Penetration of colonial
  • The scramble for and
  • Establishment of colonial

PENETRATION OF COLONIAL AGENTS

Colonial agents: were the Europeans who came in Africa in order to pave way for colonization of Africa. Normally colonial agents include,

Missionaries: were people who came on behalf of their home government in order to accomplish the three major objectives: To spread civilization, Spread Christianity and to do

Traders: came in Africa in order to look for raw materials and areas for

Explorers:came in Africa in order to search for information that was needed by the capitalists. g (David Livingstone, Henry Morton Stanley and Samuel Baker.

Chartered companies. g GEACO, BEACO, BSACO, etc.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF COLONIAL AGENTS TO THE COLONIZATION OF AFRICA

QN: Critically assess six roles played by colonial agents to the colonization of Africa.

The colonial agents played a very greater role to the colonization of Africa as follows:

They abolished slave trade: so as they can be accepted by Africa in a positively

They signed bogus treaty with African local rulers: Several fake treaties signed by colonial agents with African local rulers so as to accept colonialism. E.g. Karl Peter signed treaty with Chief Mangungo of Msovero in

They constructed infrastructures: such as roads, railways and so on, aimed at facilitating transportation in the E.g. Kenya to Uganda railway.

They built schools: so as to destroy African culture and accept colonialism through education.

They speeded up Christianity: so as to change African mind set to accept colonialism, especially

They suppressed African resistance: g. Chimulenga war, Majimaji war, Nama and Herelo, etc

They opened large plantations in the colonies: g. sisal, rubber, coffee, cotton, plantations etc.

They established trading companies: These were trading companies established by colonial government so as to administer colonies in the behalf of colonial government. E.g. BEACO, GEACO, BSACO, etc.

They cuptured important information’s about Africa: Especially information’s concern with areas with fertile land, large population, minerals, water bodies such as navigable rivers, nature of African resistance,

THE SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA

QN: The scramble for and colonization of African continent was not because for what found in Africa but what happened in Europe. Six points.

The scramble for Africa: refers to the way where by the European powers struggled among themselves to acquire colonies in Africa.

The partition of Africa: refers to the different steps taken by the European powers to divide Africa into territories and fixing colonial boundaries.

The major European powers that were involved in this exercise were Britain, Germany, France, Portugal and Belgium. By 1880’s it was only Africa which was not colonized therefore it became the centre of imperialist attention which was driven by the development of capitalism.

Scramble: means stiff completion or intensive struggle for something.

THE SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA

Normally there are two school of thought that try to discuss about the reasons behind the scramble for and partition of Africa during the 2nd half of 19th Century which were,

1. AFROCENTRIC VIEWS

According to Afro centric views the scramble for and portion of Africa during the second half of 19th century was motivated by economic factors which paved by the impact of industrial development in Europe hence they wanted to secure industrial demands such as;

The scramble for and partition of Africa during the second half of 19th century was motivated by economic factors which motivated by the impact of industrial development in Europe hence they wanted to secure industrial demands such as, raw materials, markets, cheap labour, areas for investment of their surplus capital, areas for settlement of their surplus population and cheap land for production of raw materials

2. EUROCENTRIC VIEWS

According to Eurocentric views the scramble for and partition of Africa was not motivated by

Economic factors but the reasons for scramble for and partition were motivated by very humanity factors like spreading of christianity, abolition of slave trade and ivilizing African societies.

FACTORS FOR SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICAN CONTINENT

Qn: Why yhe scramble for and partition of Africa took place during the 19th Century and not before or after? (Six reasons).

Development of capitalism: Normally the development of capitalsm in Europe especially in the highest stage which (Imperialism) it has motivated high economic demands which was geared by high industrialization in European countries such as Britain, Germany, France, Italy and so many However under this factor the capitalist powers they wanted to secure industrial/economic demands such as, raw materials, external cheap markets, cheap labourers, areas for invest of their surplus capital, areas for settlement of their surplus population hence the scramble and partition for Africa.

The European nationalism in 1870’s: Under this context European nationalism refers to the sense of European unification. Therefore soon after the Germany and Italy unification these countries become powerful military in European history which come with strong ambition of strong expansionism policy as a Means of expanding territories worldwide. However due to shortage of land in Europe their ambiations were achieved within Europe hence this has necessitated calling for Berlin conference which resulted in to scramble and colonization of

The European balance of power: Soon after the Germany an Italy unification become military powerful countries in Europe hence started aexpansionism policies which resulted in to destruction of European balance of power. Therefore this situation has lef for calling for Berlin conference in 1884-1885 for the aim of maintaing the European balance of power. However during the Berlin conference most suggested issues was to divide African among the imperialist powers. Hence te scramble and partition. Example the Franco-Prussian war in 1870-1871 when Germany invaded France and took Alsace and

National prestige: The European powers colonized frican continent so as to meet the national prestige, because by that time it was very prestige for Europe country to have external colonies. Hence this has led to colonization of Africa. Example Belgium colonize Congo colony so as to meet the national

Strategic reasons: Some parts of Africa attracted to European eyes even before the coming in Africa to having potentially to such areas, hence those places become very target to Example Congo basin, Niger Valley, Nile River and S. Africa.

Humanitarian reasons: The colonial powers colonized African as to civilize Africa through spreading Christianity and abolition of slavery and slave Example of humanitarianist are such as William Wilber force, David Ricardo, Adam Smith.

The role played by colonial agents: The colonial agents reported potential informations about the potential of African resources like the nature of Africa land, water bodies and the nature of African population.Therefore European interested much with informations from the colonial agents, hence the scramble and partition of African continent become

CONTRIBUTIONS OF ECONOMIC DEMANDS TO THE COLONIZATION OF AFRICA

Qn: Relate the development of capitalism and colonization of Africa. Qn: Assess six economic motives for colonization of Africa.

QN: why Africa become greater deal during the 19 century. Six points.

However by the mid of 19th Century 1880’s caapitalism grow up in to the highest stage called monopoly capitalism or imperialism where it has contributed to the increase in demanding for industrial needs such explained below.

Demanding for raw materials: Both agricultural products and mineral raw- This was because agricultural raw materials like c-coffee, cotton; sisal as well as mineral raw materials such as gold, diamond and copper were highly needed in Europe just to feed their hungry industries.

Demanding for markets: for the European Manufactured goods. This caused the scramble for and partition of African continent simply because with invention of new technology together with application of heavy

Demanding for cheap labour: Cheap laborers were needed to Europeans plantations and mines. This caused the Scramble for and partition of African continent since they opened up large plantations which needed Intensive

Demanding areas for investment of their surplus capital: This was because European powers since primitive accumulation of capital had invested heavily surplus capital hence they wanted areas to

Demanding areas for settlement of their surplus population: This was because with better Improvement of social services like medical care, water supply, as well as good housing

Demanding for cheap land: Cheap land was much deeded for production of raw materials to feed their

THE NATURE OF SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICAN CONTINENT

Normally during the scramble and partition of Africa, some areas witnessed serious conflicts/among the imperialist powers for example the Congo Niger basin. There were various factors that determined the pattern of the scramble for and partition of Africa.

REASONS FOR INTENSIVE SCRAMBLE AND PARTITION OF SOME PARTS OF AFRICA

Qn: Why some parts African colonies witnessed intesive conflicts among the colonial powers? Six points.

Accessibility to the interior of Africa: The imperialist powers scrambled for those areas that offered means of transport into the interior of These powers were interested in the interior because they wanted raw materials and markets where they can sell their manufactured goods. This explains why the Congo River was competed from the Belgium, France, and Portugal and the Niger River were competed for by France, Britain and Germany.

Strategic factors: This is one of the factors that determined the pattern of the scramble and the partition of Britain controlled Egypt because of the Suez Canal which was used to transport raw materials and manufactured goods into and outside Africa. Britain also controlled Uganda because it wanted to protect the source of river Nile which is found in Uganda.

Agricultural potentialities: The imperial powers struggled for areas that had fertile soils that could support the growth of cash Various powers struggled for the Congo and Niger rivers because the areas around the rivers were very fertile and therefore suitable for cash crop production.

Mineral potentialities: The imperials powers struggled for areas that had minerals in large Colonies such as Zimbabwe, Congo were very vital because it had large amounts of gold and diamond. Many imperialist powers were also interested in the Congo (DRC) because of the existence of large quantities of copper.

Population size : Population was one of the major factors that determined the nature of the scramble and partition of Africa. The colonial powers struggled for those areas with high population size because they ensured constant supply of cheap labour and cheap reliable markets for the European manufactured Example Nigeria.

Good climatic condition: Some colonies wndowed with good climatic conditions were highly experience intensive since the colonial powers wanted area where they can establish their Example Kenya highlands, south Africa.

Example of some areas that were experienced stiff scramble include

  1. Congo basin.
  2. Niger
  3. East Africa
  4. River
  5. South Africa

PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

The partition of East Africa was the outcome of the development of European monopoly capitalism. The partition was done from 1886 to 1890’s and it involved only Britain and Germany.

STAGES IN THE PARTITION PROCESS OF EAST AFRICA

The partition process of East Africa began in the Berlin conference ( 1884 – 1885) and it was completed with the partition between Germany and Britain which took place between1886s – 1890s. The partition between German and Britain was completed in two stages of agreement between them.

In East Africa, there was stiff antagonism between:-

  1. German
  2. Britain
  3. Sultan of Zanzibar

STAGES IN PARTITION OF E. AFRICA

The two stages in the partition of East Africa were: –

  1. Anglo – Germany agreement (1886) (Delimitation treaty)
  2. Anglo – Germany agreement (1890) (Heligoland treaty)

1. ANGLO – GERAMAN AGREEMENT (1886) (DELIMITATION TREATY)

It was an agreement (treaty) between Germany and Britain and the Sultan of Zanzibar the area of East Africa.

REASONS FOR HOLDING THE DELIMITATION TREATY

Presentation of treaty by Karl Peters: On 5 th Feb 1885, Karl Peters presents his treaty to Bismarck and President Kaiser William I in Berlin. Then he was granted a charter ( imperial) that stated that “ any area visited by him was to come under German colonization, hence led to formation of GEACO. Therefore, this led to stiff contradiction with IBEACO who claimed that East Africa was its area of influence hence, Delimitation Treaty.

German recognition of Karl Peter’s treaty: The Sultan appealed to Sir John Kirk ( A British Consul in South Africa) for assistance. This led to the Anglo – German treaty of 1886.

Companies interference. The British and German companies interfered each other especially in commerce and treaty making, hence Anglo – German treaty of

RESOLUTIONS/ TERMS OF THE DELIMTATION TREATY (1886)

The Anglo German agreement (1886) had the following resolutions: –

German and Britain recognized the Sultan spheres of influence which were to be Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mogadishu, Brava, Mafia and 10 miles of the coastal

Germany and British spheres of influences were to be divided by Lake The territory of Britain was to expand northward to Tana River.

The territory of Germany was to expand South wards to Ruvuma

Britain agreed to support German’s claims to establish a custom -house at Dar es Salaam.

Britain agreed to recognize Germany possession of Witu ( a small market town in the Lamu County of Kenya , East Africa . Formerly it was the capital of the Witu

2. ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENT 1890 (HELGOLAND TREATY)

Anglo-German treaty 1890: Refers to the second German agreement with the Britain over East Africa. The treaty was signed in 1890. The treaty was held due to various contradictions that arose after the delimitation treaty. The main contradictions were Germany possession of Witu and the 10 miles coastal strip of the Sultan.

REASONS FOR ANGLO – GERMAN TREATY 1890

>> German wanted to establish a protectorate in Zanzibar and eliminate

>> German wanted to occupy the island of Helgoland in the North She wanted to establish a naval base.

>> A treaty between Kabaka Mwanga and Karl In Jan 1890, Kabaka Mwanga signed a treaty of protectorate with Karl Peters that placed Buganda in the hands of the Germans. By then, Britain had already colonized Egypt, Britain did not want the source of River Nile to be under other powers. This led to Anglo – German agreement 1890.

>> Britain wanted the Sultan to cede to the Germans the 10 miles coasted

TERMS/ RESOLUTIONS OF ANGLO-GERMAN AGREENMENT OF 1890

> The Sultan agreed to cede the coastal strips to the Germans for the equivalent of two hundred thousand

> German agreed to abandon all claims of Witu island ( North of Britain sphere)

> Tanganyika mainland, Uhutu and Utusi become German sphere of

> Zanzibar, Pemba, Kenya and Uganda become British sphere of

IMPACTS OF ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENTS OF 1890

> Dar es Salaam and Mombasa become important main ports linked by railways

> From 1890 and 1894 Zanzibar and Uganda were under British control

> Tanganyika was under German rule by

> German bought the coastal strip from the Zanzibar

> These treaties culminated colonialism in East

AFRICAN COLONIES AND THEIR COLONIAL MASTERS

BELGIANS COLONIES

  • Congo Free State (Belgian Congo) Now is called or known as Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
  • Ruanda (Rwanda) and Urundi (Burundi) since 1922

FRENCH COLONIES

i. French West
  • Mauritania
  • Senegal
  • Gambia a( 1681 – 1857)
  • French Sudan ( Mali)
  • French Guinea (Guinea)
  • Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory coast)
  • Niger
  • French upper Volta ( Burkina Faso)
  • French Dahomey (Benin)
  • French Togoland ( Togo).
ii. French Equatorial Africa
  • Gabon
  • French Cameroon (1922- 1960)
  • French Congo (Republic of Congo)
  • Oubangi – Chari (Central African Republic)
iii. French North Africa
  • French Algeria
  • French Protectorate of Tunisia
  • French Morocco
iv. French East Africa
  • Madagascar
  • Comoro
  • Re-Union Island

GERMAN COLONIES

  • German Kameron (Cameroon)
  • German East Africa (Rwanda, Burundi and Tanganyika from 1885 – 1919).
  • German South – Western Africa ( 1884 – 1915)
  • German Togoland ( Togo 1884 – 1915).

PORTUGUESE COLONIES

  • Portuguese West Africa ( Anglo).
  • Portuguese East Africa ( Mozambique)
  • Portuguese Guinea ( Guinea – Bissau)
  • Cape Verde.
  • Sao Tome principle

BRITISH COLONIES

  • Egypt, Anglo – Egyptian Sudan (Sudan)
  • British East Africa (Kenya colony, Uganda and Zanzibar Protectorate (1920)
  • Bechuanaland ( Botswana)
  • Southern Rhodesia ( Zimbabwe)
  • Northern Rhodesia ( Zambia)
  • British South Africa
  • South – Western Africa ( Namibia – 1915)
  • Sierra Leone
  • British West Africa (Nigeria and British Gold Coast ( Ghana)
  • Cameroon ( 1922 – 1960)
  • Nyasaland ( Malawi)
  • Basutoland ( Lesotho)
  • (Eswatine)

EFFECTS/CONSEQUENCES OF SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION ON AFRICA

QN: Assess six effects of the scramble for and partition in Africa.

It brought Berlin conference: Normally after the scramble followed by calling the Berlin conference so as to put some agreement among the imperialist powers.

It lead to the outbreak of WWI: due to the dissatisfaction with division for

It lead to the colonization of

It brought intensive exploitation of African

Destruction of African

Changing of African continent

THE BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884-1885

The Berlin conference: was the international conference held in 1884 to 1885 at Berlin in German. The conference was invited by German chancellor Otto Von Bismarck.

See also  Explain the Similarities of Colonial Administrative Systems

Some European countries attended the conference were 27 nations including: Belgium, Britain, Italy, Portugal, France, Spain, German etc.

Denmark and USA attended in the conference as observers who were to observe all activities of the conference.

The major aim of the Berlin conference was to divide African continent peaceful among the imperialist powers.

REASONS (AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF BERLIN CONFERENCE

The Berlin conference was hold due to a number of reasons. Some of the reasons for the holding the conference was as follows:-

To discuss the nature of the scramble for Africa: so as to avoid conflicts of European over the African

To divide African continent among the imperialist powers: The conference was summoned in order to discuss on how to divide the continent of Africa into colonies among scrambling European

To solve and avoid conflicts: The conference also aimed at solving the ongoing conflicts between scrambling European nations in Africa and also avoid other conflicts which were likely to occur (To settle European conflicts which occurred before arranging the meeting).

To set up boundaries in Africa: The conference also aimed at setting up boundaries in African colonies so as to avoid interference among European colonial

To lay down principles: The Berlin Conference was also aimed at laying down principles which were to be adhered in the division and colonization of Africa (To settle rules and principles on how Africa should be divided up among the European nations)

To solve the problem of industrialization The conference was aimed at solving the problem of industrialization in Europe such as shortage of raw materials, markets This was to be done through dividing the continent of Africa into colonies for the industrialized nations in Europe.

QN: WHY GERMANY MANAGED TO HOLD THE CONFERENCE

There were several reasons as to why Germany under Otto Von Bismarck managed to hold the conference of all capitalist nations and not any other nations like Britain, France etc.

Germany was able to summon the international conference due to the following: –

Military power: During the last quarter of 19th c Germany dominated Europe in terms of military strength. Germany was powerful militarily therefore other European nations feared Failure to attend the conference could end up into military punishment.

Economic strength: Germany was very powerful economically compared to other European nations by the last quarter of the 19th This also influenced Germany to hold the conference.

The influence of Bismarck: Bismarck was a very influential factor for Germany to hold the Berlin He was very diplomatic and propagandist and therefore the conference in Berlin became inevitable.

Enmity between other nations: This gave Germany an opportunity to summon the conference.

Participation in scramble: Germany did not fully participate in the scramble for Africa and therefore was seen by other nations as the only solution for the division of

QN: WHY WAS THE BERLIN CONFERENCE HELD IN GERMANY?

Impact of German unification: Germany unification made Germany the most powerful and influential nation not only in Europe but also in the world by

Germany’s industrialization: which made Germany to be in need of colonies for raw- materials and areas for investment that is why Germany responded to the request of Portugal as quickly as

The role of Chancellor Edward Otto Von Bismarck: he was very ambitious leader who wanted recognition by other European leaders that is why he called (summoned) the Berlin

Impact of Franco Prussian war: The hostility between France against Germany the conflict is rooted from the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. Germany summoned the conference in order to check the French expansionism in

PRINCIPLES (AGREEMENTS/RESOLUTIONS) OF BERLIN CONFERENCE

QN: critically explain six resolutions or principles/ agreement of Berlin conference.

The Berlin conference in order to divide and colonize Africa, laid down some principles to be adhered by all colonial powers. These were: –

Abolition of slave trade and slavery in Africa: Every nation after being given an area (colony) in Africa was told to abolish slave trade and slavery activities in their respective colonies.

Principle of notification: it was agreed that any European nation intending to have a colony in Africa must inform other nations through provision of treaties signed by African

Peaceful setting of disputes: Any conflict that occurred between European nations was to be settled peacefully between the conflicting

King Leopold II to colonize Congo: Congo was given to King Leopold II as the conference recognized her

Principle of effective occupation or control: European power which claims to any part of Africa would be recognized by the other powers if it was effectively occupied by such European power lie under this The claimants were supposed to develop the areas through their missionaries trading companies’ explorers starting plantations and other economic activities.

Freedom of navigation: the conference declared that Congo, the Niger River and other big rivers as free zones for international navigation e. Niger River under the authority of Great Britain and Congo River under the authority of Belgium. This means that the area was not supposed to be under control of one particular nation.

Mutual agreement in drawing boundaries: There should be mutual agreement between two nations in drawing of boundaries.it was agreed to fix boundaries i.e. to divide up the African continent so as to create separate colonies where each European nation would be legally responsible to establish colonial

Free operation of missionary activities: Missionaries were to operate free in every colony without any

The principle of fixing of boundaries: it was agreed to fix boundaries so as to create colonies where each Europeans nation will be legally responsible to establish colonial rule.

SIGNIFICANCE OF BERLIN CONFERENCE TO COLONIAL POWERS

It resolved the international rivalries that involved in areas like Congo, Egypt and

It speeded the partition of Africa under the principle of effective

The Conference highligtened the unity and degree of cooperation among European

The Conference opened the interior of African land for

It avoided the possibility of the emperior powers to inter into war during the scramble for

It led to the setting of colonial boundaries in African

IMPACTS OF BERLIN CONFERENCE IN AFRICA

QN: Examine six consequences of Berlin in African colonies

Berlin conference had a lot of impacts to African continent. Some of these impacts were as follows:-

It has intensified scramble for This later on led to misunderstanding between European nations, something which led to the emergence First World War.

It has laid down rules and principles for colonizing Therefore it legalized the colonization of Africa.

It has solved hostilities among imperialist E.g. Britain and France over Egypt.

It has led to the drawing of African map and making of boundaries. This led to division of Africans g. Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania.

It has led to division of Africa .Africa wasdivided into colonies among European nations.

It has led to influx of Europeans in Africa who most of them were colonial officials and settlers who together came to colonize

It has led to total colonization of Africa (Loose of African control by themselves).

ESTABLISHMENT OF CHARTERED COMPANIES/ COMPANY RULE

QN: Explain six contributions made by company rule to the consolidation of colonialism in Africa.

The company rule sometimes was known as chartered companies.

The company rule: were the trading companies which were established by colonial government so as to reduce the cost of administration in the colonies. Normally during the early phase of establishment of colonial rule the colonial gvt used chartered companies to administer colonies.

Example chartered companies included,

IGEACO: Imperial German East Africa Company. It was under karlpeter 1884.

IBEACO: Imperial British East Africa Company, under William Mackinnon in 1888.

BSACO: British South Africa company1889 under Cecil Rhodes.

Royal Niger Company in 1886, under George Tauban.

Dutch West India company in 1621.

CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY COMPANY RULE TO THE COLONIZATION OF AFRICA

>> They abolished slave trade: Normally chartered companies they become active in abolition of slave trade especially to the interior of

>> They administered colonies: they administered colonies on the behalf of the colonial government.

>> They stopped African resistance when they

>> They constructed infrastructure: aimed at facilitating transportation activities in the colonies.

>> They signed treaties with African local rulers. Eg Karl peter signed treaty with chief Mangungo of

>> They established trading activities through opening markets and different trading centre.

>> They established agricultural plantation, this include, sisal plantation, coffee,

WHY MOST CHARTERED COMPANIES WERE FAILED?

Normally most of company rule survived for short time and totally experienced failure.Reasons for failure of chartered companies.

> Remoteness of some areas: this discouraged many traders to penetrate to interior.

> Poor infrastructure, this affected badly the whole issues of transportation in the colonies.

> African resistance: this threatened and hindered the activities of these companies. g Nandi resistance during the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway.

> Lack of enough fund. Limited capital is another problem which lead to the failure of chartered company.

> Shortage of skilled labour.

> Language problem.

> Stiff completion within companies.

> Tropical disease such as Malaria, cholera, etc.

> Poor management among the company managers.

ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE/CONTROL

Colonial rule: Refers to the administration system which was established by colonialists in Africa soon after the Berlin conference.

It is an administration by colonialists in Africa colonies after the Berlin conference in 1886. Normally soon after the Berlin conference, European powers struggled to establish their rule.

FACTORS THAT DETERMINED THE METHOD USED TO IMPOSE COLONIAL CONTROL

There were different factors that determined the type of method which was to be used by colonialists in imposing their colonial rule in Africa. Some of these factors are as follows:-

The nature of political organization: Some areas in Africa had centralized political system with strong leaders who were not ready to accept colonial rule.

In those areas, colonialists employed military force and conquest. For examples King Jaja of Opobo in Nigeria, Mkwawa of Uhehe Chiefdom, King Lobengula of Matebele land etc.

> Traditional conflicts between Africans: Some African societies had tribal conflicts with each others. This made colonialists to employ collaboration method where they sided with one of the societies in conflict in order to defeat the other society. For example: The Germans collaborated with the Bena and Sangu against the Hehe, The British collaborated with King Lenana of Maasai against his brother Sendeyo, Chief Lewanika of Rwozi Kingdom collaborated with the British against other parts of Central Africa which were a threat to him etc.

> The strongness of the societies: In areas with weaker societies, colonialists used treaties of protection and claimed to make friendship between them and African A good example, By 1885, Kari Peters had already made twelve treaties with Chief of Usagara, Uzigua etc.

> Society problems: Some societies had various problems like diseases, drought and shortage of Colonialists decided to use diplomacy and collaboration as a method to impose their colonial rule.A good example was the Maasai under Lenana who collaborated with the colonialists due to rinder pests and drought.

> The Nature of African Society: Some societies in Africa were very reluctant and did not easily want to be under This made colonialists to apply the use of force and gun boat diplomacy to intimidate them. For example, The British applied gun – boat diplomacy against King Jaja of Opobo, The British also applied this method in Kenya to conquer the Nandi.

> The Nature of African Society: Some societies in Africa were very reluctant and did not easily want to be under This made colonialists to apply the use of force and gun boat diplomacy to intimidate them. For example, The British applied gun – boat diplomacy against King Jaja of Opobo, The British also applied this method in Kenya to conquer the Nandi.

METHODS/TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY COLONIAL POWERS TO ESTABLISH COLONIAL CONTROL/RULE IN AFRICA

QN: Elaborate six techniques that were employed by colonialists to impose colonial control in Africa.

> Application of military force: Sometimes direct military confrontation was used to establish colonial rule in Africa. The military was used in areas that resisted the establishment of colonial The British used military force against the Nandi in Kenya and the Germans used force against the Hehe and Abushiri in Tanganyika. The colonial powers used force because they were determined to establish their rule in Africa so as to exploit African resources.

> Alliances/ collaboration method: This method was used in areas were two societies were in conflict, that is situation of The colonial powers allied with one society against the other one and then controlled all of them together. In Tanganyika the German sided with Sango and Bena against Hehe and in central Africa, the British allied with chief Lewanika of lozi Kingdom against lobengula of the Ndebele people in Zimbabwe.This led to the defect of Lobengula and the final colonization of Zimbabwe by the British.

> Intimidation method: this was the tactique where the colonial powers had threatened to use force but they did not actually use This method aimed at forcing African into submission. This method was used by British against King Jaja of Opobo in West Africa

> Mercenary technique: In this policy, colonial powers used Africans to establish their rule in Africa. Here they used people who had no blood ties with the people who are being invaded for example the Germans used the Rugaruga in

> Ideological method: they used racism, colonial education and religion to change African Mindset so as to accept

> Administrative method: they used direct, indirect and

> Economical method: they destroyed African economic base so as to make African to depend from whites

AFRICAN RESISTANCE AGANST THE IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE

African resistance: refers to the reaction of African against the establishment of colonial rule. Normally African resistance categorized based on time and scale.

FACTORS DETERMINED THE NATURE OF AFRICAN RESISTANCE

QN: Discuss six factors that determined the nature of African Resistance

> The military structure and the strength of the

> The nature of leader ship e. strong or weak.

> The nature of the colonialists e. aggressive or friendly.

> The nature of exploitation and oppression made Africans to use collaboration or resistance

> The level of interference in social, political and economic interest made Africans to react or

> The nature of population [African societies] for example the size of the population, unity among the people

Conclusion: However Due to the above factors, it caused African societies to impose strong resistance or weak resistance or collaboration.

Forms of African resistance

Normally African resistance include:-

  1. Active
  2. Collaboration
  3. Passive

A. ACTIVE RESISTANCE

WHY SOME SOCIETIES OF AFRICA SUCCEEDED/WERE ABLE TO APPLY ACTIVE RESISTANCE?

> Presence of strong/ good leadership g. SamoriToure and Mkwawa.

> Strong unity among the

> Good Leadership

> Strong organizations/political

> Powerful socially and

B: COLLABORATION

QN: Why some African society were collaborated by colonialist?

Collaboration: was the form of African resistance whereby the African sided with colonialism against their fellow Africans. Unders this technique colonialist sided with African especially the weak society against the strong society.

E.g German in Tanganyika sided with Sangu and Bena against Hehe. In W. Africa British sided with Afante against Ashant in Ghana.

REASONS FOR COLLABORATION OF SOME AFRICAN COUNTRIES

Ignorance of some rulers: Some African local chiefs collaborated with colonialists because they thought that, they could get military and economic help from the colonial powers especially those weak Example: Sangu, Bena, Fante, etc.

Individual interests of some rulers: some local chiefs sided with colonialists so as to protect their leadership Example chief Kahigi of Buhaya.

Low level of economic development: This has made them to fail to resist for long time with European due to shortage of food to feed their armies and their

Tropical disease: some African society were badly affected by tropical diseases to the extent that were failed to fight actively against colonial powers, hence they were decided to collaborate with whites as the way to get rid from such tropical diseases like Cholera, Malaria, small pox, Example Maasai in East Africa.

The influence of Missionaries in some societies: Normally Missionaries as the colonial agents played very great rule to make sure that African were to collaborate with whites through spreading western cultural values like Christianity to change African mindsets. E.g. in uganda Samei Kakunguru collaborated by Missionaries against Kabaka.

Natural calamities: this was another factor which has made African to be collaborated with their invaders, the environmental problems such as drought, floods were serious affected their production, hence famine and

Weak military base: some societies failed to fight actively against colonial powers due to lack of stable military base. Example: Sangu and Bena in

C. PASSIVE RESISTANCE

Passive resistance: was the form of resistance where by Africans did not take arms in opposing colonial rule or cooperating with colonialists.

Passive resistance is unarmed or nonviolence opposition against colonial control by refusing to pay taxes, production of cash crops, denied to work etc. an example of a society which applied passive resistance was Pogoro who refused to involve in colonial activities like cotton picking in southern Tanganyika.

QN: WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES APPLIED PASSIVE RESISTANCE NOT ACTIVE RESISTANCE?

> Poor and Absence of strong army; presence of weak army made some African societies to afraid to

> Poor unity among the people in the society

> Presence of natural calamities for example floods,

> Weak social and political organization

CAUSES OF AFRICAN RESISTANCE

QN: Why African resisted against the establishment of colonial rule in their respective areas?Almost African resisted against the imposition of colonial rule due the following reasons:-

To defend their sovereignty: African reacted against colonial powers so as to defend their social and political

Cultural interferences: African reacted against cultural interference since their culture were destroyed by spreading western cultural

Trade interferences: African they wanted to protect their local trade ( batter systems) because the European were introduced money economy in the

Economic exploitation: generally african reacted against the introduction of land alienation, taxation, this include, hut tax pull tax, matiti tax, payment of low wages, forced labour and long

Poor living condition: African reacted against poor living condition, such as poor provision of social services in the

Poor working conditions: this includes long working hours, working without job protection.

Racial segregation and discrimination: Africans were reacted to end racial inequalities between Africans and whites in provision of social services like heath, education, housing and other many facilities in the colonies since Africans were treated as the last class after the

CLASSIFICATION OF AFRICAN RESISTANCE

A: According to time

  1. primary resistance: These were early African resisted against the colonial penetration and occupation in
  2. Secondary resistance: African resisted against the establishment of colonial

B:  According to scale

  1. SMALL SCALE RESISTANCE

Small scale resistance is the type of resistance which fought for a short period of time over a small area or small group of people.

Small scale resistance normally covered a small area fought on the basis of tribal lines occurred during penetration of colonialists i.e. the Nandi, Hehe, Nyamwezi etc.Small scale resistance was influenced by local rulers [leaders] who organized their small groups of people to take army against European invaders to defend their territories.

EXAMPLES OF SMALL SCALE RESISTANCE WHICH WILL BE DISCUSSED ARE
  1. The HEHE resistance [1891-1898]
  2. The NYAMWEZI resistance [1891-1894]
  3. The YAO resistance [1888]
  4. The BUNYORO resistance[1893]
  5. The MASAI [Kenya resistance 1895]
  6. The NANDI resistance[1896-1905]

(A) THE HEHE RESISTANCE [1891-1898]

HEHE resistance was a small scale resistance which occurred in 1891-1898 fought against Germany under the leadership of MKWAWA.

HEHE resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the HEHE tribe against Germany in 1891-1898 under the leadership of MKWAWA.

HEHE resistance was among of the strong and powerful resistance imposed towards Germany colonial power since it fought for many years and brought a lot of damages, sufferings and disturbances to Germany because HEHE tribe under the leadership of MKWAWA had good war techniques inherited from the Ngoni tribe such as cow horns, short stubbing spears and long hide.

Therefore through good war techniques HEHE under MKWAWA formed a strongest kingdom and resisted against Germany rule than the rest resistance in East Africa.

CAUSES OR REASONS OF HEHE RESISTANCE

Interference of Mkwawa’s leadership, Germany wanted to control Mkwawa and forced him to accept Germany control due to that Mkwawa disagreed to accept Germany

To protect political and economic

Interference of culture; Germany interfered Hehe culture such as polygamy belief in many systems etc which made the Hehe under the Mkwawa harsh hence fight against Germany.

Germany harsh rule: Germany ruled Hehe very harsh not respectful to the Hehe, they forced them to pay tax, to work and took their land as a result the Hehe fought against the Killing of the Mkwawa’s delegates. Germany killed Mkwawa’s delegates who were sent to compromise as a result Mkwawa revenged by killing Germany commander known as EMIL VON ZELEWSKY and 300 African soldiers as a result war started. The name Mkwawa means conqueror of lands.

Germany’s control several areas in Tanganyika. Hehe under Mkwawa fought against the Germans because they wanted to control Ugogo, Uluguru, UsagaraandMpwapwa which had 410 economic importance to the

Blocking trade routes; Hehe resistance against Germany occurred following Mkwawa blocking all Germany caravan routes passed his area which disrupted the Germany trade hence conflicts

Conclusion

However due to the above reasons or causes of the Hehe resistance the war/ fighting broke out which took a long period of time. The Germany attacked Mkwawa in 1891 following the killing of the Germany commander Emil von Zelewsky at Lugalo.

In 1894 Germany attacked Mkwawa’s capital known as Kalenga but Mkwawa succeeded to run away [escape] and started to fight the GORRILAS WARFARE until 1898. In the same year 1898 Mkwawa while he was hiding himself he became sick.

The Germans approached where he was hiding Mkwawa did not accept the shame of surrender to Germany while he was alive he shot himself in July 1898 and died.

(B) NANDI RESISTANCE 1896-1905

Nandi resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the Nandi tribe in Kenya against British in 1896-1905 following the British occupation or control over the Nandi’s land.

Nandi resistance was a small scale resistance occurred in 1896-1905 when Nandi tribe in Kenya resisted against the British control over their land organized by a leader known as KOITALEL and ORKOLYOT.

The Nandi resistance occurred since the British invaded and occupied [control] the Nandi land by constructing [build] telegraphic lines and railways along the Nandi rift valley land which were fertile for crop production and livestock keeping. The Nandi were not happy for the construction of that railway lines and termed or called ”Iron snake”.

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Therefore they started the resistance by attacking the British military position, uprooting and cutting wires, attacking the British caravan trade, raiding the railway deposits etc.

The Nandi did that because they believed that they had the superior weapons and military to fight British as they conquered the neighboring territories.

THE REASONS OR CAUSES OF THE NANDI RESISTANCE.

Construction of the railway lines along the Nandi land. Nandi resisted against British because British constructed a railway line on the Nandi land which they defined on it for farming and livestock

Land problems or alienation. British took Nandi’s best and fertile land and gave it to the whites settlements as a result the Nandi fought against

Racial segregation: The Nandi’s The Nandi fought against the British because they believed that they were superior, strong and powerful socially, economically, politically, militarily and culturally hence did not want to be controlled.

The influence of prophet Kimnyoles: the Nandi decided to fight against the British because of the prophecy of the Kimnyole who foreseen the coming of foreigners on their land which made the Nandi to fight against the British after they arrived on their land.

The killing of the Nandi leader KOITALEL: Nandi’s resisted against the British following the killing of their leader known as Koitalel when he was called in the meeting of stopping the

Ndani they wanted to protect their culture from being

THE EFFECT OR IMPACT OF NANDI RESISTANCE

The death of people. Nandi resistance led to the massive loss of people’s lives including leaders such as Koitalel, Orkolyot and other

British colonizing the Nandi land. The British defeated the Nandi during resistance as a result they took the Nandi land and made the Nandi to lost their

Destruction of properties. The Nandi resistance led to the destroying of people’s properties including land, railways, telegraphic lines, killing of livestock, houses

Hunger and famine. Nandi resistance led to the occurrence of hunger [food shortage] since resistance took many years and farms and cattle were killed during the

Migration of people. The Nandi resistance led to the restless of people because during and after the resistance people run away or migrated to other

Land alienation. Nandi resistance led to many Nandi people to remain landless since after the resistance British took Nandi’s fertile

Nandi resistance led to the introduction of cheap labour, since those Nandi people had decided to be employed as cheap labours to the British settle

(C) THE NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE 1891-1894

Nyamwezi resistance was a small scale resistance against the Germany rule organized by Nyamwezi under their leader known as chief Isike in 1891-1894.

The Nyamwezi resistance occurred as a result of German’s monopolization over Nyamwezi’s trade and passed through their land such as Ujiji and Mwanza which broke their first good trade relation.

The Nyamwezi started resistance under their leader chief Isike in 1891 in order to avoid the Germany control; but due to poor weapons the German attacked Isike’s fort and destroyed it.

Chief Isike decided to blow up [kill himself] together with his family in the gun powder magazine rather than being captured by Germany.

CAUSES OF NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE

The influence of Isike leadership: Isike was regarded as strong and powerful leader so he organized his people to fight against German

The land conflicts: Germany wanted to control the Nyamwezi’s land as they did in other areas in

Harsh rule of Germany: as a result Nyamwezi resisted against the German

Cultural interference: NyNyamwezi they wanted to protect their cultural

Racial segregation: Nyamwezi they wanted to avoid racism from

Economic exploitation: Through land alienation, taxation, forced labour, long working hours and low wages.

REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE

  1. Absence of strong
  2. Poor Organization
  3. Disunity among the
  4. Poor fighting
  5. Poor war organizations

(D) YAO RESISTANCE [1890-1899]

Yao resistance: was small scale resistance which fought between the YAO against the Germans in 1890-1899 under the leadership of Chief MWENE MACHEMBA.

The Yao resistance was an active resistance since Machemba organized his people actively and was able to defeat three Germany companies sent to him.

Aftermachemba to defeat Germany companies the German Governor forced Machemba to leave his place but he refused as a result German took up army against machemba and attacked Machemba’s fort in 1899.

THE CAUSES OF THE YAO RESISTANCE

Interference of Yao’s territory: The Germany wanted to control the Yao’s territory which made Yao under Machemba to fight activity against it.

The conflict between Machemba and the Germany: Machemba defeated three German companies as a result German took up army to

Machemba’s rejection to surrender: The Germany forced Machemba to surrender by leaving his place to the coast as a result Germany waged for the

Introduction of Forced Labour. The German forced Yao to work without or with low payment as a result people took up arms against Germany.

Conclusion

Machemba managed to escape into Mozambique and left his fellow imprisoned as a result the Yao resistance failed hence Germany took control over the Yao‘s southern region of Tanganyika.

(E) ABUSHIRI AND BWANAHERI RESISTANCE 1888-1889

Abushiri and Bwana Heri resistance was a small scale resistance which occurred along the coastal region of Tanganyika where by rich Arabs and local traders organized to fight against the British and the German interference on their trade in 1888-1889.

Abushiri and Bwana Heri resistance was among of strong small scale resistance since they organized their strong forces against German by hoisting the German flag in all coastal towns.

Due to this the British decided to join with German and started to interfere the Abushiri and Bwana Heri’s trade and production of coconut and cereal plantations which depended also on the slave trade activities by the German and the British utilizing their naval forces to suppress slave trade in Indian ocean.

As a result the German chancellor sent a Germany commander solider Von Wisman so as to recruit mercenaries [soldiers] to suppress Abushiri’s forces.

Due to that Abushiri’s forces were defeated hence Abushiri decided to fled to Mpwapwa when he was captured and publicly hanged on 15th December 1889 after being betrayed by a village headman of Usangara known as Magaya a Jumbe.

BWANA HERI’S RESISTANCE [1889 -1894]

Was another coastal people’s resistance which came after the failure of Abushiri resistance organized by Bwana Heri of Uzigua against Germany forces.

CAUSES OF BWANA HERI RESISTANCE

Germany interfered Bwana Heri’s economic activities at Saadan.

Introduction of taxes which were imposed by Germany

Imposition of Germany control over Bwana Heri’s

Interference of coastal people’s

Political interference

To avoid interference in

THE MAKUNGANYA RESISTANCE [1894]

Makunganya resistance was another coastal Tanganyika small scale resistance which were fought between Hassan bin Omar Makunganya against Germany in 1894 after Bwana Heri being defeated, surrendered and run away.

Makunganya resistance did not last for a long time since Makunganya was defeated hence found hanged himself on a mango tree in November 1894 in KilwaKivinje.

This mango tree was known as mwembekinyonga since it was used to hang all people who committed a crime and disobeyed the government’s orders.

(F) THE CHAGA RESISTANCE 1892

This was a small scale resistance led by chief MANGISINA OF KIBOSHO and CHIEF MANDARA OF MOSHI (MARANGU) against the Germans in 1892.

At the end Germany defeated SINA of Kibosho and Mandara [lindi] of Marangu following disunity among the chiefs brought about by chief enmity.

At first the Germans entered on the land of the Chagga following the agreements of treaties signed by the local chiefs because the local chiefs were competing in welcoming foreigners and caravan routes for economic motives.

Due to this chief Mangisina got a lot of wealth from caravan trade routes from foreigners. Therefore chief Mandara tried his level best to safeguard his trade routes by providing enough supply of cattle and food to feed the caravan trade routes.

Chief Mandara decided to wage war against Chief Mangi Sina of Kibosho in order to get enough food and cattle supply to feed the caravan trade routes.

The Germany used the advantage of that Chief enmity between Chief Mandara and Mangi Sina of Kibosho by supporting Chief Mandara due to their friendship against Mangi Sina of kibosho who was not Germany friend because he lowered the Germany flag.

CAUSES OF THE CHAGA RESISTANCE

  • Interference of
  • Presence of chief enmity between chief Mandara of Marangu and Sina of kibosho which
  • Germany
  • Need to control
  • To maintain the power; Chagga chiefs waged for war because they wanted to safeguard and maintain their
Conclusion

However Sina of Kibosho was defeated when Mandara died in 1892 while the struggle continued by chief Mandala’s successor known as Chief (Mangi) Marialle. Chief Marialle used diplomatic struggle by convincing Germany to live in Marangu which declared safe than Moshi.

Chief Marialle’s successor was chief Meli who killed a messenger sent by Germans. The Chief Marialle claimed to Germany that the messenger was killed by chief Meli as a result Germany attacked Chief Meli and hanged him in 1892 which marked the end of the resistance.

(G) BUNYORO RESISTANCE IN UGANDA [1893]

Bunyoro resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the Banyoro and the British in 1893 under the leadership of kabalega.

Kabalega organized his tribe Bunyoro against British captain sir Lugard who introduced Christianity frictions to fight against Muslims forces in Bunyoro. Due to that Kabaka also joined the resistance with Bunyoro against British because he was also harshly punished by the British for involving into ivory trade without British commissioners consent.

CAUSES OF BUNYORO RESISTANCE

Religious and  culture Interference. British interfered the Bunyoro and Buganda’s culture by forcing people to follow English cultures as a result people

British interfered the Kabaka and Bunyoro’s trade because Ugandans were not allowed to trade without British

British hash treatment. British government treated the Ugandans including leaders very hash by forcing them to accept British harsh rules, to pay taxes, to involve in production etc. as a result people

Conclusion

However, instead of strong resistance Kabaka was defeated then he joined with kaberega, Where both were defeated by British forces and sent them in exile in Sycelles in 1899. This marked the end of the resistance and British took control over Buganda.

(H) THE MAZRUI DYNASTY’S RESISTANCE

The Mazrui dynasty resistance was active small scale resistance fought between the Arabs ruling family and rich merchants (traders) against the British in June 1895 to safeguard trade opportunities in Lamu, Kenya.

Mazrui dynasty resistance was active small scale resistance since it involved in burning town the coast.

CAUSES OF THE MAZRUI DYNASTY RESISTANCE

  • Interference in
  • Introduction of African British
  • The harsh British
  • Harsh administration of
  • Economic
  • Racial

Conclusion

Despite of fighting against British strongly and actively, Mazrui resistance was failed since British employed its puppet known as Rashid bin Salim who betrayed his fellows Mazrui as a result Mazrui escaped to Germany East Africa hence British took control over their areas by using local merchants and administrators.

(I) THE SOMALI RESISTANCE IN KENYA 1901

Somali resistance was small scale active resistance fought by the Somali people in north Eastern Kenya against the British to protect their land for pastoralist activities such as livestock pasture and waste.

Somali people being pastoralists they practiced nomadic life means moving with their cattle from one place to another searching for water and pastures.

The presence or imposition of British on their land disturbed their activities of pastoralism which was their main economic activities.

CAUSES OF THE SOMALI RESISTANCE

Land alienation: The British took the best land to which Somali depended for pastoralist activities for pasture and

Interference of Somali economic

British harsh treatment

Cultural interference

Racial Segragation

Conclusion

Therefore the Somalis reacted against British by making a number of attacks in the British areas such as Yonte the British outpost; but British was able to defeat the Somali in 1901 after sending their armed forces.

2. THE LARGE SCALE / SECONDARY RESISTANCE

Large scale resistance: under this type of resistance many African tribes were involved.

  • Majimaji war in Tanganyika
  • Mau Mau and Nandi resistance in Kenya
  • Chimulenga war or Shona and Ndebelle resistance in Zimbabwe
  • Nama and Herero resistance in Namibia
  • SamoriToure resistance or Mandika resistance in Guinea
  • Jaja of Opobo resistance in Nigeria.

(A) MAJI MAJI WAR/ RESISTANCE/UPRISING 1905-1907

Majimaji resistance: was a large scale resistance which occurred in 1905-1907 between the southern Tanganyika societies against Germany rule. It was organized by a leader known as KinjetikitileNgwale.

Majimaji resistance broke out in 1905-1907 following the Germany brutal /harsh rule and exploitation along the southern part of Tanganyika.

Germany introduced the cotton plantations by which people were much affected by that since their land was taken. People were forced to work, they were paid low wages and forced to pay taxes as a result Kinjekitile Ngwale who was religious charismatic and revolutionary leader, organized the southern Tanganyika societies which involved different tribes like the Ngindos, Matumbi, Mbugu, Pogoro, Maasai, from different areas such as Makonde plateau, Songea, Kilombero valley, Mahenge and Dar es salaam.

Kinjikitile Ngwale managed to organize all the tribes through the magic water which was drawn or taken from river Rufiji and mixed up with maize and millet flour which was thrown on the bodies of fighters under the beliefs that water will turn them into the bullet in war. That is why the resistance was termed as Majimaji which was derived from a Swahili word Maji.

Therefore though the magic water introduced by Kinjekitile Ngwale; southern Tanganyika societies got courage, discipline and strengthened them to took army and fight against Germany fearless despite the Germany had strong army and were powerful.

THE CAUSES OF THE MAJI MAJI RESISTANCE

To defend their sovereignty: Africans in Tanganyika reacted against colonial powers so as to defend their social and political freedom.The independence and the freedom of southern Tanganyika societies lost after Germany took control over them, so people fought in order to regain their

Cultural interferences: Africans in Tanganyika reacted against cultural interference since their culture were destroyed by spreading western cultural values. The agreements reached during the Anglo-Germany treaty of 1886. The Anglo-Germany agreement of November 1886 affected Britain and Germany and the sultan of According to this agreement the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia and Lamu and other towns of Kismoyu, Brava, Merca and Mogadishu and War sheikh were defined as dominions of the sultans of Zanzibar. The northern half became the British sphere of influence while the area to south became a Germany sphere of influence.

Trade interferences: Africans they wanted to protect their local trade ( batter systems) because the European were introduced money economy in the

Economic exploitation: generally african reacted against the introduction of land alienation, taxation, this include, hut tax pull tax, matiti tax, payment of low wages, forced labour and long

Poor living condition: African reacted against poor living condition, such as poor provision of social services in the

Poor working conditions: this includes long working hours, working without job protection.

Racial segregation and discrimination: Africans were reacted to end racial inequalities between Africans and whites in provision of social services like heath, education, housing and other many facilities in the colonies since Africans were treated as the last class after the

THE EFFECTS/ SHORTCOMING OR IMPACTS OF THE MAJIMAJI UPRISING

i.  Large famine and starvations broke out among the African communities, farms and food stores were set on fire i.e. fungafunga.

ii. Depopulation. Fighters and common villagers died in the war.

iii.Large scale migration. Africans migrated from the areas affected by war; they were looking for asylum for their survival.

iv. The colonial government made a positive change on the side of Africans. The Africans were no longer forced to work they would choose to work or not.

v. The Majimaji resistance gave a lesson to the future life Tanganyikans that; the use of force does not always give fruitful results.

vi. Brutal system of administrations of using Jumbes and Akidas was replaced by young men from mission schools; this had improved the system of administration.

POSITIVE IMPACTS OF THE MAJI MAJI WAR [IMPORTANCE]

Germany changed Germany administration: After Majimaji Germans decided to stop oppressing people and forcing them to work

It brought unity and solidarity: Majimaji brought many southern societies together including the Ngindo, Zaramo, Ngoni, Matumbietc, to resist against the

Majimaji paved the way for nationalistic struggle: Majimaji showed the element of Tanganyika’s disagreement to

It has provided lesson to Africans in Tanganyika that, unity is

Majimaji showed that people wanted to regain their lost independence. Majimaji showed that the Tanganyikans wanted to be free and that they could This gave a lesson to the Germans.

Majimaji educated Africans to use good war techniques instead of depending on superstition beliefs. The failure of the Majimaji war gave lesson to Africans to get well prepared and use good war techniques instead of believing in magic power g. war.

REASONS FOR THE FAILURE / DEFEAT OF MAJI MAJI RESISTANCE

Poor ideology of Kinjekitile Kwale: The use of magic water took the African to war unprepared. They thought that; what they wanted would automatically drive them to their

Germans had superior weapons compared to the weapons used by The Africans were using outdated guns and traditional weapons such as bows, arrows and spears

There was no military communication among the tribes which engaged in the Each tribe fought independently; there was no central military command.

Unity among Germans: The Germans supported themselves to suppress the revolts by destroying the means which made the Africans to withstand the war. They destroyed farms and villages this in turn starved the Africans in which they failed to continue with war.

Poor leadership: Despite of KinjekitileNgwale to convince and organize people confidently to fight against Germany, but he organized them poorly under poor beliefs of magic

Germany got weapons and mercenary soldiers support during Majimaji resistance. People of Tanganyika failed because Germany got many war weapons and soldiers support assistance from her other colonies such as Sudan, New Guinea and

(B) MAU MAU UPRISING WAR 1945-1952.

Mau Mau uprising was a movement organized by Africans as a last resort in the struggle for independence. It was an attempt by the desperate people to resist against colonial system. The movement broke out in 1905’s.

The kikuyu people initiated it and later it spread to other areas. It was aimed at attaining or deserving national freedom and independence while Majimaji resistance was against imposition of colonial rule.

Mau Mau rebellion/ war was first organized by the kikuyu tribe who were affected much by British colonial exploitation through forced labour, land alienation and introduction of taxation (multi taxes) etc, then later on Mau Mau was joined by other tribes applied Guerrillas warfare techniques hiding in the forest and attacking the British areas suddenly.

THE AIM OF THE MAUMAU WAR/ UPRISING

To regain the lost independence: Mau Mau aimed at the desire to get their best independence.

To eradicates colonial exploitation: Mau Mau aimed at killing all the Europeans and Africans to collaborate in order to stop colonial exploitation and

To sweep away colonialism: Mau Mau aimed at sending away all Europeans to their countries so as Africans to get their

To fight for majority rule: Mau Mau aimed at attaining majority Mau Mau aimed at getting equal rights with the white men.

To stop land alienation

To attaining equal rights and representation in executive: because Kenyans were given no or few chances in colonial government and in legislative council for example in 1994 one Kenyan named Eliad Mathieu was a member of the parliament while in 1948 only four Kenyans were members of the

CAUSES/ REASONS OF MAU MAU RESISTANCE

Introduction of land alienation: British colonial government took Kenyan’s best and fertile land and left Kenyans landless under crown colony land policy of 1915 which gave British settlers long term of land ownership; for example 99years to 999

Introduction of taxes: Mau Mau broke out [occurred] due to heavy taxes introduced by British government which Kenyans were forced to pay such as; matiti taxes which parents forced to pay for their mature young girls, hut tax and head

Introduction of forced labour: Kenyans fought against British government and settlers due to forced labour where by Kenyans were forced to work with no or low wages to colonial government

Introduction of Kipande system: British introduced an identity card which shows someone’s working place, which also forced people to work into colonial government and settle in the certain fixed places in year free of charge hence Kenyans became harsh hence the Mau Mau

Interferences of culture: Kikuyu tribes had their cultural practices like female circumcision, polygamy, beliefs in many Gods etc; then the British interfered them as bad culture which made the kikuyu to

British harsh rule: The British rule become very harsh to African hence leads to war to be

Land Legislative ordinance of

The influence of the Kenyan ex-soldiers from World War Example Dedan Kimathi.

They wanted to regain their lost independence: Mau Mau occurred because Kenyans were tired of the British colonial control which was very

THE EFFECTS / IMPACTS OF THE MAU MAU

Many people including the Kenyans and whites [British] were killed during Mau Mau hence decreased number of people.

Destruction of properties: People’s properties including houses, farms, and infrastructures were destroyed during the fighting due to burning and the use of weapons.

Fear and insecurity: Mau Mau war created fear and insecurity among Kenyans; since it was fought for many years hence people were

Family separations: Mau Mau war led to many men and women to leave their children because of the war as a result they left their children parentless hence family disintegration.

Migration of people: Mau Mau war led to many people to escape / run away to different areas due to the fear of

Hunger and famine: Mau Mau war led to the hunger and famine because people took long period to fight instead of involving in production. Also many food crops were destroyed during the

Mau Mau brought unity to the Kenyans: Mau Mau brought Kenyans together regardless of their tribal differences despite the war was initiated [started] by the kikuyu tribe.

Mau Mau led to the decolonization of Kenyans: Mau Mau contributed for the Kenyan independence in

CONTRIBUTION OF MAU MAU WAR TO KENYANS INDEPENDENCE

The war brought about positive political changes in Kenya.

> The British opened the door for political The Africans were given an opportunity to be represented in the legislative council.

> The colonial government allowed political associations to operate at local level e. open politics. This change was a good start for Kenyans also the Kenyans were allowed to grow cash crops i.e. in the Kikuyu land, Emu etc.

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> It was a clear sign that the Africans would no longer tolerate foreign domination rather they needed full political

> Mau Mau paved the way for freedom and The end of Mau Mau led the British to start granting independence to start granting independence to the Kenyans.

> Mau Mau led Kenyans to be given social, political and economic rights such as participating in educational opportunities etc.

STATE OF EMERGENCY OF KENYA IN 1952

State of emergency: were measures taken/ announced by the British governor known as Evelyn Baring in 1952 as a result of the outbreak of the Mau Mau war which brought negative impacts to British colonial government such as; destruction of properties, mass killing, road and railway blocking etc.

MEASURES TAKEN DURING THE STATE OF EMERGENCY

Banning of political parties: State of emergency in Kenya declared to stop all political parties activities which organized people for independence g. KANU, KADU.

Imprisonment of political nationalist leaders like DedanKimathi, Jomo Kenyatta etc; were imprisoned so as to break unity following the state of

Close down all private schools: State of emergency in Kenya declared the closure of all private schools since it is believed that; the politicians used for destroying peace and harmony.

Introduction of heavy taxes: State of emergency declared Kenyans to pay more taxes to compensate for Mau Mau

Forbid people to possess weapons: After state of emergency in Kenya law was passed to prevent Kenyans to carry any

Assassination of Kenyan political leaders. State of emergency in Kenya led to leaders such as DedanKimathi, Mboillela to be jailed and killed by the British government.

Burning and bombing of villages and forests: State of emergency led to Kenyan forests and villages to be burned and bombed so as to chase away freedom fighters that were in

EFFECTS/IMPACTS OF STATE OF EMERGENCY IN KENYA

It has led to removal of the kikuyu out of The state of emergency led kikuyu people who were the initiators of the Mau Mau to be chased from Nairobi so as to stop them from supporting the Mau Mau fighters.

It has led to constitutional change in Kenya: State emergency in Kenya led to the declaring of changes in the constitution for example multiracial councils formed to replace executive

Introduction of new settlements: Kikuyu were forced to live in new big areas so as to access social services easily such as health, education

Increase of employment opportunities: Employment opportunities increased especially to other tribes following the kikuyu to be removed from

Mass suffering: State of emergency led to the majority of kikuyu to suffer psychologically, feared to be

It has paved way for Kenyan independence: State of emergency contributed for Kenyans to speed up the desire for independence since Kenyans became more courageous, militant and

Conclusion

Generally state of emergency which declared in 1957 to react against Mau Mau war led to Kenyan independence in 1963 since Kenyans started to grant independence through diplomacy by using political parties which brought a lot of challenges in the British government hence independence.

REACTION AGAINST IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE IN WEST AFRICA

The West African societies also reacted against imposition of colonial rule / invasion. There were various resistances against French invasion and British invasion as follows:

  • Resistance against French invasion in
  • Samori Toure [Mandika] resistance against French invasion
  • Taja of Opobo and Ashanti resistance against British in Nigeria

REACTION/ RESISTANCE AGAINST FRENCH INVASION SENEGAMBIA

At first French military conquest in West Africa were directed to Senegambia in West Africa during the leadership of MahmadouLamine and against guinea under leadership of SamoraToure.

AIMS OF THE FRENCH TO CONQUER WEST AFRICA [GUINEA AND SENEGAMBIA]

  • To capture trade centers of western
  • To control the strategic areas between upper Senegal and
  • To control trade of palm oil, groundnut and
  • To colonize those
Conclusion

These above French demands/ aims created a conflict between the French and West African societies since Africans were not happy for their areas to be taken by the French.

SAMOURI TOURE [MANDIKA] RESISTANCE OR REACTION AGAINST FRENCH INVASION IN GUINEA/ MANDIKA IN 1891-1898

Samori Toure [Mandika] resistance was a long time resistance which took place in 1891- 1898 organized by strong militant leader known as Samori Toure against French invasion / rule in guinea [Mandika empire].

Samori Toure who fought strongly against the French invasion, he was a soldier and a successful trader born in the country presently known as Guinea.

Samori Toure became a powerful, militant, courageous and strong leader since he was sixteen years old; he intended to establish a strong military state to prevent his new Mali Empire under Mandika tribe not to be colonized by the French.

Therefore Samori Toure being a successful trader due to selling gold, slaves and kola nuts during the Trans Saharan trade routes such as the Timbuktu, Taghanza and Walata which enabled Samori Toure to acquire a lot of profit which he used to employ and feed thousands of soldiers and mercenaries in his state who provided long time / term resistance against imposition of French rule in guinea [Mandika empire].

REASONS FOR THE SAMORI TOURE RESISTANCE AGAINST THE FRENCH IN 1891- 1898.

Interference of trade: SamoriToure fought against the French because the French wanted to control over the trade across his territory hence he wanted to safeguard

French expansion mission: French wanted to expand or extend their territory by conquering Mandika Empire which led SamoriToure to fight to protect his

Interference of the Mandika’s culture: Mandika’s culture was interfered by the French as a result SamoriToure fought in order to defend their culture such as beliefs, language etc.

The role of ex-soldiers: SamoriToure fought against the French because he had strong, powerful and courageous soldiers who were formally saving (work) for French government and learnt different war

Desire to protect Mandika’s independence: SamoriToure fought against the French because they wanted to control Mandika which was fully independent and reached at high peak of military

French support/ assistance to SamoriToure’s enemies: French collaborated with SamoriToure’s enemies to fight such as; Tieba and Sikaso by selling and supplying firearms to fight against SamoriToure, as a result SamoriToure fought against the French.

WHY SAMORI TOURE MANAGED TO CONTAIN [FIGHT] THE FRENCH FORCES FOR SO LONG1891-1898

Good leadership: SamoriToure was good, powerful and courageous person[leader] who was able to organize Mandika

SamoriToure was a successful trader and soldier hence used his skills and wealth to fight against French such as employing soldiers and making weapons.

Good war techniques: Good war techniques such as gorillas or command tactics helped SamoriToure to ambush and raid French forces hence fought for a long

Existence of well organized army: SamoriToure managed to fight against French forces for a long time because he had a strong army consisted of 12000 men and 40000

Availability of modern weapons: SamoriToure had skills of making his own weapons and bought them from other leaders as a result he fought for a long

Samori Toure had a lot of wealth from the trade of slaves: gold and kola nuts which was utilized in rewarding his workers and soldiers for their

Unity among the Mandika people: Mandika Empire was well united in defending and protecting strongly their empire under the leadership of

The rise or scorched Earth military techniques: SamoriToure used scorched Earth tactics such as burning villages and destroying crops prevented French forces to reach their places

Availability of enough food supply to the fighter/soldiers.

The common beliefs: The use of Islamic religion and

FACTORS FOR THE FAILURE /DEFEAT OF SAMORI TOURE

Shortage of military weapons. Due to longtime fighting Samori Toure forces failed to manufacture or produce and get enough supply of weapons as a result they

Disunity among rulers: Some leaders such as Ahmed Seku of Tukula and Tieba of Sikasso led to the failure of Samori Toure resistance because they did not support SamoriToure rather cooperated with the French.

Strong and organized French army: Despite of Samori Toure to have strong army, he was defeated because the French army was more trained, experienced and more organized in military

Disunity among communities: Other communities such as the non Mandika and the non Muslims communities decided to support the French instead of TamoriToure hence he was

Long time fighting (battle): Long time fighting led to the failure of samoritoure because people failed to produce and they were tired of the endless

Instability and public misery. Many people suffered during SamoriToure resistance since crops were destroyed, villages were fired left people with hunger and no properties hence the

Failure of the British agreement with SamoriToure: French allied with British in the Anglo French agreement in 1889-1890 which stopped British from supplying arms to SamoriToure’s

(D) REACTION OR RESISTANCE AGAINST BRITISH IN NIGERIA (JAJA OF OPOBO RESISTANCE) AND ASHANTI RESISTANCE

British imposited and conquered the southern region of Nigeria, used various methods in order to ensure that they control the area since Nigeria was a very potential area for colonial demands also there were strong centralized states hence it was not easy for the British to control the area easily so the British used two methods;

British used a combination of making treaties [diplomacy] and military force conquest. For example in conquest of Southern Nigeria; British used military force and British used diplomacy in conquering Northern

Also British used agencies / companies in order to conquer Nigeria for example British used the following companies:-

  • The royal Niger companies
  • The Lagos colonial state
  • The Niger protectorate

Therefore in order for the British to succeed to control Nigeria [interland] they decided to make bogus treaties with local rulers in Niger delta in 1884 which led to the proclamation of the Oil River protectorate in June 1885.

KING JAJA OF OPOBO RESISTANCE IN NIGERIA

King Jaja of Opobo kingdom was among of the rulers in West Africa in particular Nigeria who strongly opposed imposition or establishment of British colonial rule / control in his area.

King Jaja of Opobo was powerful economically and militarily because; king Jaja was a successful trader who benefited from palm oil trade.

After the coming of the British merchants opposed and interfered king Jaja’s monopoly [control] of the palm oil Rivers. Therefore king Jaja decided to react against the British imposition in his territory to safeguard his economical, political and social position and power.

REASONS CAUSES OF KING JAJA OF OPOBO RESISTQNCE IN NIGERIA

He wanted to protect his trade of palm oil because Britain

He opposed British monopolizing his

King Jaja opposed to pay taxes since the British forced him to pay custom

King Jaja opposed British interference to his power since British forced him to change commercial trade

King Jaja opposed trade

Conclusion

Due to the above British attempts, king Jaja fought against the British which led to the relationship between British to break hence the decline of trade. King Jaja’s military was defeated by the British forces and deported king Jaja to Seychelles while the Northern Nigeria resistance continued until first half of the 20th century when Royal Niger company forces annexation in 1899 and 1900 when British was taking over the colony [1900].

(E) ASHANTI AND FANTE REACTION AGAINST BRITISH RULE IN COAST OF NIGERIA

The British mission to control Nigeria was not ended in king Jaja of Opobo’s territory. British also wanted to conquer the coast of Nigeria which were occupied by two surface societies namely, Ashanti, Fante societies.

Ashanti and Fante societies were the coastal Nigerian societies, which strongly opposed British control along the coast of Nigeria. Therefore during British imposition along the coast of Nigeria; British encountered many resistance and war from Ashanti and Fante Empire as follows;

ANGLO [BRITISH] ASHANTI WAR

The Anglo-Ashanti war was a resistance organized by Ashanti against British imposition of British rule along the coast of Nigeria.

Ashanti was one of the Akan speaking people who occupied the southern part of Ghana in West Africa. By 1670 the Akan people started forming states such as AKWAMU, DENKRIYA and FANTE.

The leader of this empire was known as Osei Tutu [Ssantehene by title]. The capital city of coast [Ghana] was known as Kumasi in which marked the end of Ashanti/ Asante power.

CAUSES OF ANGLO ASHANTI WAR IN WEST AFRICA

Introduction of Trans-Antlantic slave trade: The growth of Trans-Atlantic trade brought a lot of wealth to the Asante This wealth was instrumental in the prosperity of the Empire.

The kingdom had strong agricultural base: they managed to produce enough food throughout the

The Asante had a large efficient standing army: The introduction of guns and gun powder by the Europeans during the trade enabled the Ashanti to be militarily powerful than their

The”Golden Stool” brought about unity in the kingdom: It was the symbol of power and authority in the

The Asante were brave and proud people, they struggled to be free from the oppressive rule of the Denkyira and this motivated them to form their independent empire.

Odwrira festivals that were held annually helped to make the empire more

The first three rulers or Asantehene were able and courageous politicians; these were ObiriYeboa, Osei Tutu and Opuku Were, these leaders each one in his region was able to control people in his

However these reaction were defeated by British.

BRITISH OCCUPATION / CONTROL OVER THE SHONA AND NDEBELE TERRITORIES

After the British occupied both the Shona and Ndebele land through signing of bogus treaties with JS Moffat and Charles Rudd treaties, it led to the Shona and Ndebele land to be taken by the British south African company BSACO as a result the Shona and Ndebele started to experience a lot of sufferings, exploitation, harsh treatments, disasters etc. Shona and Ndebele decided to join and fight against the British in 1896 to 1897 hence the Chimulenga war.

SHONA AND NDEBELE WAR OR CHIMULENGA WAR 1896-1897

Shona and Ndebele resistance traditionally known as Chimulenga joined two tribes of Shona and Ndebele against the British rule in Zimbabwe in 1896-1897 under the leadership of King Lobengula.

Shona and Ndebele resistance was first launched / started by Ndebele [Matebele] tribe in April 1896 following British occupation at Matebele land, Shona joined the war in June 1896[the same year] that is why the war was called Chimulenga war.

Therefore Chimulenga war was the traditional resistance which was organized by Shona and Ndebele tribe against British rule in Zimbabwe in 1886 to 1897 led by king Lobengula.

THE CAUSES OF THE SHONA AND NDEBELE WAR

The land question: The BSACO and white settlers confiscated the fertile land from the Africans hence the natives were pushed into the reserves and ultimately they became the labourers in the various economic

Introduced of Forced labour: The prevalent policy of the whites was to force the Africans in both Mashona and Ndebele [Matebele] land to provide labour in the colonial economic sectors. The Africans through their chiefs were forced to provide labour power in the farms and mines. All able men had to work regardless of their former positions in the

Introduction of Taxation: In 1894 the hut tax was introduced. Some of the Shona chiefs and their subjects rejected new laws that were introduced by colonial government; cattle, goats and grains were confiscated from those who failed to pay

Introduction if low wages: Those Africans who were subjected to forced labour in the mines and in white farms were poorly paid though they worked for long

Interference of trade: The desire of the company [BSACO] to control trade in the Mashona land created chaos in the

Interference of culture: Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity which was against the African culture and

Loss of cattle: Cattle were the backbone of the Shona and the The British government confiscated the cattle and gave them to the British.

THE EFFECTS [CONSEQUENCES] OF THE CHIMULENGA [SHONA AND NDEBELE] WAR

Depopulation: Chimulenga war led to the decrease in number of Shona and Ndebele because of the killings and many people

Hunger and famine: Shona and Ndebele war led to hunger and famine because people were not involving in production and many crops were destroyed during the

The Ndebele chiefs were employed in various administrative positions under the BSACO

Destruction of properties: Shona and Ndebele properties such as farms, houses, and cattle were destroyed during the Chimulenga

Death of people: During Chimulenga war many people including the Shona, Ndebele and the British lost their

Fear and insecurity: Chimulenga war led to people unrest and fear because there was no peace and

NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE IN NAMIBIA [1904-1907)

Nama and Herero were the tribes who fought against Germans in South Africa [Namibia].

The resistance took place in 1904-1907. Herero was led by chief Maherero while Nama was led by chief WITBOOI.

THE CAUSES OF THE NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE/ UPRISING

Introduction of passing identity: Herero were forced to carry passes [forced labour]; Nama and Herero were forced to work in the German settlers’ farms with low or without payment hence

Introduction of land alienation: Indigenous land was occupied by Germany and in turn Africans were alienated from their

Forced labour: Forced labor became the order of the day since African labourers were needed in the construction of railways, roads and

Cattle confiscation: Germans confiscated cattle of the Africans for the purpose of denying those means of subsistence; with this the circumstances would compel them to look for an

An outbreak of render pest disease in 1903: The disease killed many This event was interpreted as a curse from the God for the Africans cooperating with the whites thus they had to fight against them.

Debt crisis: Africans particularly the Herero failed to repay back the money to the German The German government decided to confiscate the cattle and the land, the action led to the misunderstanding between Africans and the Germans hence the uprising

EFFECTS OF THE NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE

Death of people: Many people died and others were left Chief Witbooi was also killed.

Increased in forced labour: Many Africans turned to be laborers after losing their cattle and land.

Herero were forced to carry passes: Chiefdom ship was officially abolished in

Introduction of foreign administration: Nama and Herero became under foreign rule until 1918 when they became under South Africa as the mandate territory

Increase in cultural interference

Intensive exploitation of natural

REACTIONS AGAINST IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE IN NORTH AFRICA ETHIOPIAN RESISTANCE [1889-1913]

Ethiopian resistance: was reaction against imposition of the Italy colonial rule in Ethiopia in 1889 to 1913 under the leadership of MENELIK II.

Menelik II began his career in southern Ethiopia by expanding his empire, following the death of john IV in 1889; he was assisted by the Italians and declared himself emperor by signing the uncial treaty on May 2nd 1889.

He was a great diplomat who commanded popularity and public attention of many people including kings and the British. He is said to have influenced RasMangusha of Tiger to his side to scare the Italians who liked to impose their rule in Tiger and other Northern states.

CAUSES OF THE ETHOPIAN RESISTANCE

Menelik resisted because the Italians annexed and arbitrarily declared Northern Ethiopia as their

The Italians used the uncial treaty which differed in its meaning in the Latin and Ethiopian languages to prove declaration of Ethiopia as their

The Italian attempts in 1890 to stop Menelik II from negotiating the diplomatic exchange of the envoys with France and Russia caused further

The Italians campaigned to pay off the Northern chiefs against Menelik. His foe was RasMangasha from the north the Italians used him to ferment quarrels between the

REASONS FOR THE SUCCESS OF THE ETHIOPIANS

QN Why did the Ethiopian were not colonized?

By the 1889’s the Ethiopian succeeded to defeat Italian occupation. Reasons for the success of Ethiopian resistance against Italian were:-

Good leadership of Menelic II: Menelik success in safeguarding the Adowa army against the Italians altered Europeans view regarding Ethiopia from one of a potential colony to an equal sovereign Ethiopia was lucky to have leaders who were talented in leadership and organization. That factor contributed to the defense and conquering of the Italians and preservation of their political independence.

The use of common language: Language united the people of Ethiopia

Common belief: The people of Ethiopia had a strong belief in the common historical Moreover they shared a common religion of Christianity in which they were strong adherent and they had strong attachment to the Solomonia Dynasty.

Good geographical location of Ethiopia: The geography of Ethiopia also helped to safeguard the independence of the

Good fighting techniques: Ethiopian leaders manipulated European antagonism among them for their own armies and good fighting

Unity among the Ethiopian: The Ethiopians had established long a high spirit of national feeling and national

Low richness of the colony: Little economic endowments and lack of mineral potentials have been advanced factors why Ethiopians escaped Europe and

IMPORTANCE OF AFRICAN RESISTANCE

African resistance had significance to African history although they were feared but they show that Africans were not ready to be colonized.

> Primary resistance helped to shape the environment of later African politics because of their impacts upon the thinking and actions of the colonial

> Primary resistance displayed African grievances to the

> Primary resistance brought about the collapse of the commercial companies which were at 1st employed by the Germans and the British to open East African spheres of

> Primary resistance showed Europeans that Africans were not willing to be colonized by Europeans. They wanted to remain with their traditional ways of living.

> Primary resistance forced Europeans to change the method of ruling Africans; for example in Tanganyika after the Majimaji war the Germans made changes in their way of ruling including in land ownership, taxation and whipping people in

THE DEFEAT OF AFRICANS RESISTANCE AGAINST THE IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE

QN: why African resistance against the imposition of colonial rule to their respective areas failed?

> Poor weapons among African: since the European used trong

> Europeans had good means of

> Poor fighting techniques among

> Tropical dieses such as Maralia, cholera, while European were already discovered

> Language problem among the African fighters, since involved many

> Poor ideologies among the African E.g kinjekitile Ngwale of Majimaji war.

> Disunity among the Africans while the Europeans were well

> Economic backwardness. Such hunger and

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