Home COMPUTER STUDIES TOPIC 1 : INFORMATION | ICS FORM 1

TOPIC 1 : INFORMATION | ICS FORM 1

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COMPUTER STUDY NOTES ICS FORM TWO

TOPIC 1 : INFORMATION | ICS FORM 1

Concept of Information

The meaning of Data

Data and information are used interchangeably but they are quite different.

Consider this example: when a student is admitted at school he/she fills a form with details

such as parents’ names, date of birth, place of domicile, address, phone number and so

on, those details are referred to as data. When such data are used by the school authority

then the school gets the information about a particular student.

Data can be defined as facts about something that can be used in calculating, reasoning

or planning.

Data (Input) is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers,

images, audio, and video which are later processed into information

Information conveys meaning to users, it is also known as processed data (output)

Data is any collection of numbers, characters or other symbols that has been coded into

a format that can be input into a computer and processed.

Data on its own has no meaning or context.

It is only after processing by a computer that data takes on a context and becomes

information.

Therefore information is an organized data which give meaningful sentence or

statement.

Relationship of Data and Information

Data and Information are closely interrelated with each other.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION

 Both data and Information can be presented in alphabets

 Both data and information can be Presented in numerals

 Both data and Information can be presented in symbols

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION

DATA INFORMATION

i) data is a row fact that is unprocessed. i) information is data that has been processed

ii) data is the lower level of knowledge ii) Information is the second level of knowledge

iii) observation and recording are done to obtain data iii) The analysis is done to obtain information

The sources of Information

What is the source of information?

An information source is a person, thing, or place from which information comes, arises,

or is obtained. That source might then inform a person about something or provide

knowledge about it. Information sources are divided into separate distinct categories, primary, secondary, tertiary, and so on. In simple words source of information means the origination of the message.

A) PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 The primary source of information allows learners to access original and unedited information.

The primary source requires the learner to interact with the sources and extract information.

 Examples: personal interview, E-mail, discussion, debate, meeting, survey, observation, etc.

B) SECONDARY SOURCES

 Secondary sources are edited primary sources, second-hand versions. They represent someone

else’s thinking.

 Example Books, Encyclopedia, DVD’s magazines, newspapers, videotape, audiotape, TV, internet, website.etc.

C) TERTIARY SOURCES

 These sources are intermediate between primary and secondary sources.

 For example someone may read a newspaper and pass the information to others through various means.

The importance of Information

Computers were originally used by scientists for calculating numbers, and have gradually become useful in offices and industries.

In recent times, simplified models that can be used by almost everybody have become common in schools and homes for accomplishing many varied tasks and applications.

Lists the uses that computers are now commonly put to writing letters, and reports, printing books, newspapers, and magazines, drawing pictures and diagrams, doing statistics, mathematics and handling financial records, controlling traffic lights, flying airplanes, making and playing music and video, sending messages anywhere in the world.

Internet The Internet is a global collection of many types of computers and computer networks that are linked together.

It is increasingly becoming the solution to much information, problems, information exchange, and marketing that describes the Internet as a mixture of many services with the two most commonly used being electronic mail (e- mail for short) and the World Wide Web (www).

It plays a significant role in education, health, political processes, agriculture, economy, businesses and newsgroups.

With Internet connectivity, one can do business all over the world without physical contact with the buyer or the need for a business intermediary.

E-mail Electronic mail (e-mail) is the exchange of text messages and computer files transmitted via communications networks such as the Internet.

The e-mail system as the equivalent of postal mailing services, with the biggest difference being the time and cost involved.

And not only written data, but all sorts of information in the form of video, audio, or photographs, can be sent via e-mail.

E-mail as an increasingly popular method of communication, especially in the workplace.

Mobile phones are a telephone system that can move or be moved easily and quickly from place to place.

Mobile phones were once the tool of rich and busy executives who could afford both the luxury. Mobile phones are now the ICT that is reshaping and revolutionizing communications globally.

Its impact on the economic activities of nations, businesses, and small entrepreneurs is phenomenal.

The availability of this new technology has been reshaping the material basis of the society as well as bringing about a profound restructuring of economic, political, and

cultural relations among states.

In summary, information is important because:

 It creates awareness.

 It educates people.

 It alerts people when there is danger.

 Information gives instructions.

 The information helps in decision making.

 Information can be used in advertising goods.

Information dissemination

WAYS OF DISSEMINATING INFORMATION

i) Traditional Ways

ii) Modern Ways.

Information dissemination is the process of spreading or distributing information using various ways from one individual to another. or

Information dissemination is the process of making the information known to the general public.

SOURCE: This is the origin of the message. the source can be direct or indirect

MEDIUM: This is the means or channel of spreading information such as newspapers, signs, magazines radio television telephone internet, etc.

RECEIVER: These are the intended audience to receive the message or information.

Traditional ways of disseminating Information

Uses traditional tools to spread information for example songs, drums, poems whistle.

The modern ways of disseminating Information

Uses modern tools to spread information example Internet, TV, Radio stations, magazines, posters, burners, fliers, websites, Social media like WhatsApp, Facebook, tango, IMO, Instagram, tweeter, etc.

The comparison of modern and traditional ways of disseminating Information

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND MODERN WAYS

TRADITIONAL WAYS MODERN WAYS

Slow in disseminating information Quick and faster to disseminate information

Most of them are manually operated They are electrically equipped

Message can be sent within a short distance They can cover a great distance

The information reaches a few people so many people can get information at a time.

The cost of sending the message is too high The cost of sending a message is very low

Contrast modern and traditional ways of disseminating information

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND MODERN WAYS

The communication media

Communication media refers to the means of delivering and receiving data or information

Communication media can be classified into 2 categories

 Guided media: the messages (data) are guided along a physical path. example of guided media

include phone lines, twisted pair cables, coaxial cables, and optical fiber

 Unguided media: are media that allow the transmission of data without the use of physical means

to define the path it takes (wireless). examples, Bluetooth, radio wave, microwave, infrared, Wi- Fi, etc.

Activity 1

A student should learn how to operate a radio receiver and a Television.

Test Yourself

Slow in disseminating information Quick and faster to disseminate information

Most of them are manually operated They are electrically equipped

Message can be sent within a short distance They can cover a great distance

The cost of sending the message is too high The cost of sending a message is very low

The information reaches a few people Many people can get information at a time.

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