TOPIC 3: HUMAN RIGHTS | CIVICS FORM 1
What is a human right?
-Are those accepted principle of fairness and justices that all people deserve. Or are claims individual or a group of people against the state.
-Are basic things that all human being are entitled to and which nobody should interfere with such as right include right to life ,ownership of properly, education, marriage e.c.t
ASPECTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
There are two types of aspects of human rights there are: –
1. Legal rights
2. Moral rights
1. LEGAL RIGHTS
Are those rights which are named and defined in the constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania and International conversion.
2. MORAL RIGHTS
Are those rights which are recognized by a society by way of conscience. They are agreed by a society to be desirable e.g. Religious matters.
TYPES OF HUMAN RIGHTS
There are three types of human rights there are: –
1. Civic and political rights
2. Economic social and cultural rights
3. Environmental and developmental
CIVIC AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
• Are these right that very person must enjoy
• The right to life, liberty and security of person
• Freedom from slavery
• Freedom from torture cruelly in human degrading treatment or punishment.
• Equality before the law
• To be tried before competent or skilled lawyer.
• To be considered innocent until proved guilt
• To be given a fair and public hearing
• Not to be arrested determined or exited an fairly
• Freedom of movement in his or her country.
• To live any country including his own and to return to it when she/he likes to
• To be protected by the family society and the state.
• To posses property alone
• Freedom of thought conscious and religion
• Freedom to have ones opinions and express one self.
• Freedom to assemble peacefully to associate with other freely.
ECONOMIC SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
Economically, socially and culturally every person must enjoy the following rights
• Right to social security and free development of his or her personality.
• The right to work and choose employment
• The right to equal pay for equal work
• The right to just and favorable remuneration
• The right to form and join trade union
• The right to rest and leisure including reasonable limitation of working hours and period holidays with pay.
• The right to standard of living sufficient for the health and well being i.e. food, clothing, housing, medical care and others.
• The right to education whether born in or out of wedlock to enjoy the some social protection.
• For parents to choose the kind of education shall give to their children.
Environmental and developmental
are the rights that people have to live in an environment that is clean and free from pollution.
People also have a right to wealth and natural resources, self-determination and peace.
IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN OUR SOCIETY
Human right is the very important in our society because
1. Are foundations of freedom justice peace and liberty
2. Limit government powers and action against the people
3. Help people to be aware to take actions against traders who violet their rights.
4. Human right promotes development in their society since it provides equal rights to the people e.g. right to education.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIGHTS TO THE PROVISION OF BASIC NEED.
Human rights relate to many aspects of human life. Among these aspects is the promotion of social services in Tanzania there services are provided by Government and UN
PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN TANZANIA
Tanzania is a member of UNO promotes both human rights and fundamental freedom in the following ways.
1. The constitution is based on the universal declaration of human rights.
2. The right to live is guarantees individuals person to life no one should take someone life.
3. The right to freedom from slavery, the constitution Tanzania does not allow any form of slavery.
4. Freedom from torture or security in human or degrading
5. The right to be recognized everywhere as a person in front of the law.
HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE
What is human right abuse?
Is the unlawful prevention of a person enjoyment of his or her right as outlined in the constitution .
Example of human rights abuse
• F.G.M Female Genital Mutilation (women circumcision)
• Raping of women and children
• Killing of old people due to bad tradition
• Women beating from her husband
• Child labour
• Forced marriage
• Prohibiting women from inheritance
• Invasion of weak countries by bigger countries
• Idd Amin Dada vs Tanzania
FACTORS WHICH CAUSE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE
• Negligence of the action
• Ignorance of the society concerned
• Selfishness of some individuals who consider only their interests.
Parents can be abuse the right of their children by;
1. Denying them education
2. Not providing basic needs such as food and clothing for their children.
3. Forcing their children to marry against their wishes ,especially at a tender age.
4. Giving their children severe punishment.
Society can be abuse individual rights through;
1. Beating up and killing suspected criminals without giving them a fair trail in a court of law.
2. Abandoning children in the streets.
3. Stigmatizing less fortunate member of the society such as the disabled and people living with HIV and AIDS.
Government can abuse human right through ;
1. Making oppressive laws that limits the individual rights.
2. Discriminating against some citizen due to their colour ,gender, religion, or ethnic origin.
3. Not including a Bill of Right in the Constitution.
4. Not maintaining the rules of law.
Effects of human rights abuse
1. Conflict among family member and in the community. This leads to unrest and instability in the society .
2. Conflict between citizen and their government .This makes it difficult for the government to enforce law and order.
3. Citizens are unable to perform their duties and responsibility in peace
4. Increased crime and poverty in the society.
5. Oppression of the less fortunate member in the society , for example ,workers ,may be underpaid or the poor may be denied justice in the court of law .
6. Citizen are unable to obtain their basic needs when the right to work is denied or abuse
Ways to combat abuse of human rights
1. The government has to maintain the rule of law. Where the rule of law is not being maintained, e.g. in countries at war, a lot of human rights abuses are experienced such as the inability to get basic needs.
2. The government should educate its citizens about their basic rights so that they can claim them when they are denied.
3. The society has to respect all people, including the sick and the disadvantaged.
4. The courts of law should enforce the law in a just manner and punish those who abuse the right of others, such as thieves and murderers.
5. These should be a system of controlling the activities of the government.
6. The government has to be transparent in its operations.
7. All people should be treated fairly and equally before the law