Are the overseeing and controlling of the ordering, storage and use of components that a company will use in the production of the items it will sell as well as the overseeing and controlling of quantities of finished products for sale.
A business’s inventory is one of its major assets and represents an investment that is tied up until the item is sold or used in the production of an item that is sold. It also costs money to store, track and insure inventory. Inventories that are mismanaged can create significant financial problems for a business,
whether the mismanagement results in an inventory glut or an inventory shortage.
The Meaning of Receiving; Issuing; Stocktaking; Care of Stock; Placement of Stock Items
Explain what is meant by: Receiving; Issuing; Stocktaking; Care of stock; Placement of stock items
FUNCTIONS OF STOCK ADMINISTRATION
Receiving the stock:
the major function of receiving section of the organisation are
unloading and packaging. Receiving involves accepting deliveries from
carriers, unpacking the deliveries, checking the deliveries on the kind,
quantity and quality etc
Placing the goods:
the stores convenient for the organisation and the layout should be
convenient to the class of goods handled and bins etc should be arranged
in logical order.
Basic rules for placing goods in the warehouse
Stock must be kept in a way that will clearly show which ones are old stocks and new stocks
heavy goods should be kept near the flow
goods most frequently required should be easily accessible.
valuable or fragile goods should receive special protection.
Care of stock:
the shopkeeper should cleaning a warehouse in and outside including the
general cleaning of floors, walls, ceiling boards, rooms, container
etc, Dusting of various items kept in rooms or stocks. Ensuring that the
materials are well preserved, sorting out spoilt goods, for fragile
goods and perishable materials needs special handling care.
Issuing of stock:
issuing of stocks should be done by the storekeeper and has assistance
who have free access to the storeroom. When a department needs materials
from the store, stock should be issued against voucher or requisition
order signed by the person who authorized to issue. This is purposely
done to keep proper records and control the movement of stock i.e.
delivery is done against vouchers to ensure that the outflow of stock is
equal to inflow of stock.
refers to the process of checking and keeping records of the quality
and value of goods in stock. It includes all activities that are
necessary to ensure that the right stock levels are maintained at all
time to ensure that overstocking and shortages do not occur. The goal
for a business is to invest the least amount in inventory while
maintaining specific operating requirements. Ideally, the inventory
control in place allows the business to supply needs in regards to
production or to the customer at the precise moment needed, at the
minimal price. Successful inventory control keeps waste and surplus at a
minimum and efficiently handles storage, production and distribution of
Basic duties of stock control.
Assessing the items to be held in stock.
Deciding the extent of stock holding of items.
Regulating receipts and issues into store houses.
The Meaning and Determination of Turnover; Stock leve
Give the meaning and determination of Turnover; Stock level
Stock Levels Definition:
overcome the problem of over-stocking or under-stocking it is very
essential that pace of consumption should be studied carefully for a
number of months and following stock – levels should be fixed by
management for all individual items of material except low value items.
It means maximum quantity which may be held in stock. This level is
fixed on basis of various considerations main of which are : rate of
consumption, finances and storage space available.
It means the lowest level below which stocks should not be allowed to
fall. It is essentially a buffer stock. This level is fixed by taking
into account the rate of consumption and the time necessary to obtain
delivery of fresh materials (called lead time).
This is a very critical level which is below minimum level If stock of
any particular item reaches this level immediate action to make purchase
in a quantity sufficient to tide over the delay in the regular supply,
may be necessitated so that production may not stop. In view of the
above levels it is necessary that a level of stock should be fixed at
which further action for purchases is made for normal procurement. This
level is called REORDER LEVEL.
Fixation of Stock Levels.
The levels of stocks to be held may be determined by policy decision of
the management keeping in view the level of production, finances
available, lead time and the storage capacity.
Economic order Quantity (EOQ) is generally worked out by using the following formula:- FOQ = 2 C O/I where
C = Annual consumption quantity
O = Cost of placing one order
I = Carrying cost of one unit of materials inventory
Unit of Material Omega Costs Rs.0.50, yearly consumption is 20,000.
Cost of placing one order is Rs.20 and carrying cost of inventory is
EOQ = 2 x CO/I = √2 x 20,000 x 20/20% of 0.50 = √800,000/ 0.1 = √8.000.000 = 2,828 units approx per order.
Finances required for each order = 2828 x 0.50 = Rs.1414.
of orders to be placed in a year = Total annual consumption/EOQ
= 20,000/2828 Approximately 7 orders.
What is ‘Inventory Turnover’
turnover is a ratio showing how many times a company’s inventory is
sold and replaced over a period. The days in the period can then be
divided by the inventory turnover formula to calculate the days it takes
to sell the inventory on hand or “inventory turnover days.”
Generally it is calculated as:
Inventory Turnover = Sales / Inventory
However, it may also be calculated as:
Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventor.
Level of Stock = (Reorder Level + Reorder Quantity) – (Minimum rate of
consumption x Minimum reorder period) Maximum Level may be alternatively
fixed as Safety Stock + Reorder Quantity or EOQ.
Minimum level of stock = Reorder level – (Average rate of consumption x Average reorder period)
Safety Stock = (Annual Demand/365) x (Maximum Reorder Period – Average Reorder Period)
level or Ordering level = Maximum rate of consumption × Maximum reorder
period. Alternatively, it will be = safety stock + lead time
consumption [lead time consumption will be = (Annual consumption -s-
360) × lead time]
Danger level = It is slightly below the
minimum level. It is a level at which special efforts should be made to
obtain supplies of materials, i.e. Minimum rate of consumption ×
Emergency delivery time
Average Stock level = (Maximum stock
level + Minimum stock level) x 14 or Minimum Stock level + 14 Reorder
Quantity. Obviously, the Reordering level is below the Maximum level,
and Minimum level is below the Reordering level and the Danger level is
below the Minimum level. Safety Stock is above minimum level.
In above calculations, the following elements are important:
It is consumption or use of material per day (or per week) by
production department. These rates will be maximum and minimum, the
simple average of maximum and minimum rates is average consumption rate
per day or per Week.
Reorder Period: It is
period between materials ordered and materials received. The average
reorder period is simple average of maximum and minimum reorder periods.
At the time of purchase of material, one of the important problems to
be faced is how much quantity of a particular materials to be purchased
at a time. If purchases are made frequently in small quantities it will
result in loss of trade discounts and economies in purchasing. On the
other hand if purchases are made in large quantities it will lead to
over stocking and cost of storage will be high. The ordering quantity
should be economic and reasonable by all aspects. It should be Economic
Order Quantity (EOQ). The calculation of EOQ has been discussed later
Illustration 1: [Fixation of stock levels]:
Two components A and B are used as follows:
Normal usage 50 units per week each
Minimum usage 25 units per week each
Maximum usage 75 units per week each
Reorder Quantity A 300 units; B 500 units
Reorder Period A 4 to 6 weeks, B 2 to 4 weeks
Calculate for each component:
Average Stock Level.
Reorder Level = Maximum Rate of Consumption x Maximum Reorder Period. A = 75 x 6 = 450 units B = 75 x 4 = 300 units
Level = Reorder Level – (Average Rate of consumption x Average Reorder
Period) A = 450 – (50 – 5) = 200 units B = 300 – (50 x 3) = 150 units
Stock Level = (Reorder Level + Reorder Quantity) – (Minimum Consumption
Rate x Minimum Reorder Period) A = (450 + 300) – (25 x 4) = 650 units B
= (300 + 500) – (25 x 2) = 750 units
Average Stock Level = (Maximum Stock Level + Minimum Stock Level)/2 A = (650 + 200)/2 = 425 units B = (750 + 150)/2 = 450 units
Average Stock Level can also be calculated by the formula.
Minimum Stock Level + ½ of Reorder Quantity
A = 200 + ½ x 300 = 350 units
B = 150 + ½ x 500 = 400 units
the minimum stock level and average stock level of raw material A are
4,000 and 9000 units respectively, find out its reorder quantity.
Average stock level = Minimum stock level + ½ of Reorder Quantity
9000 = 4000 + of Reorder Quantity
½ Reorder Quantity = 9000 – 4000 = 5000
Reorder Quantity = 10,000 units
Describe the effects of a warehouse being without stock.
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